Monday, December 30, 2019
Since the mid to late 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s, the advertising industry has taken off and found new ways to persuade consumers to purchase products. As is the case with most things nowadays, social media has been a monumental part in the above mentioned forward progression the advertising industry has faced. Therefore, given the modern day advances of technology, social media and advertisers have found it increasingly more easy to join forces along the journey of fusing consumers into one massive cache. However, regardless of new advances, analysts have made an abundance of shocking discoveries that besmirch advertisers and their work in recent decades. As Jack Solomon wrote in his article, Ã¢â¬Å"Masters of Desire: The Culture of American AdvertisingÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"ifÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦(Twitchell, p. 178) As if this tidbit of information was not enough to raise awareness of the bad side effects that come along with social media and advertising, a study was conducted recently to de termine just how important advertisers found ethics to be; the results were shocking. It turns out that among twenty-nine different advertising agencies, two general groups were able to be formed: Ã¢â¬Å"those who feel ethics is largely irrelevant to advertising, and those who Ã¢â¬Ëtypically recognized moral issues and talked about them inside the agency with their coworkers and outside the agency with their clients and potential clients.Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Drumright and Murphy, 2009) Unfortunately, the majority of the agencies who were interviewed fell into the category of believing that ethics is largely irrelevant to advertising. Since ethics turn out to be of so little concern in the advertising industry, and since advertisements clutter social media, it is fair to conclude that said industries are not in existence to look out for consumers, but rather to provide a platform for sales and increased revenue. As most everyone knows, the American culture has become subject to an inn umerable amount of stereotypes that are based upon just about any aspect of life. It is clear that this is unhealthy and provides for an unsafe environment for many American citizens. Regardless, social media and advertising essentially encourage theShow MoreRelatedJack Solomon s Master s Of Desire : The Culture Of American Advertising1214 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswhat AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s want and desire in their lives. According to Jack Solomon in his essay, Ã¢â¬Å"MasterÃ¢â¬â¢s of Desire: The Culture of American Advertising,Ã¢â¬ Jack Solomon claims: Ã¢â¬Å"Because ours is a highly diverse, pluralistic society, various advertisements may say different things depending on their intended audiences, but in every case they say something about America, about the status of our hopes, fears, desires, and beliefsÃ¢â¬ (Solomon). Advertisers continue to promote the American dream of what a womenÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreDkny Ad Analysis1331 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesportrays the secondary message tha t by wearing the Be Delicious perfume, women will be more sensual like the woman shown. DKNYÃ¢â¬â¢s use of these sexual overtones allows this advertisement to be effective. Jack Solomon, the author of Ã¢â¬Å"Masters of Desire: The Culture of American AdvertisingÃ¢â¬ explains the great success sexual innuendos in advertisements have. He states, Ã¢â¬Å"Sex never fails as an attention-getter...andÃ¢â¬ ¦advertisers like to bet on a sure thing. Ad people refer to the proliferation ofÃ¢â¬ ¦ads as Ã¢â¬ËclutterRead MoreThe American Paradox1049 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesaround the western concept. Both of these advertising tactics supports an American paradox. As argued in Jack SolomonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Master of Desire: The Culture of American AdvertisingÃ¢â¬ , the contradiction lies in the desire to strive above the crowd and the quest for social equality. The American dream glamorizes the fantasy of equality where each American citizen experience the characteristics associated with the American culture. In other words, it is every American right to pursue and obtain the great offersRead MoreConsumerism Warping Human Values : We Are Consumers1696 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescreated a consumption-oriented ideology that ultimately transformed American culture and life, as we know it. This multi-dimensional approach shifted nineteenth-century American values of frugality, moderation, and self-denial to periodic leisure, compulsive spending, and individual self-fulfillment. There are three main factors that contributed to this transformation: radio and billboards, credit, and mind-cure religion. Consumer culture developed out of the rise of modernity and the historical emergenceRead MoreAmerican Popular Culture : Sexual Abuse1180 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAmerican Popular Culture ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s a common saying that Ã¢â¬Å"sex sellsÃ¢â¬ , which turns out to be true according to pop culture. However, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not just a sexual appeal that is shown, itÃ¢â¬â¢s also a fantasy of sexual abuse. Ã¢â¬Å"Sex in advertising is the use of sexually provocative or erotic imagery that is designed to arouse a certain group of peopleÃ¢â¬ (Suggett). Advertisers are manipulating the human desires to make their products sell. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s products that sell, are products that can capture anyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s attentionRead MoreTobacco Companies Using Advertising Tactics That Target Teenagers1487 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTobacco companies should be prevented from using advertising tactics that target teenagers. There has always been controversy as to how tobacco companies should prevent using advertising tactics to target teenagers. As controversial as this is tobacco companies shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t advertise teen smoking. Many teens may be lured to believe cigarette advertising bec ause it has been part of the American Culture for years, magazine ads and the media target young people, and these companies receive a drastic increaseRead MoreThe Adverse Effects Of Advertising On Children1428 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Adverse Effects of Advertising on Children By: David Tran Advance Placement Psychology Mr. Cuetara 6/4/2015 Abstract Advertisers have been targeting children to market their products to for years now. The purpose of this report is to expose the advertisers and large corporationsÃ¢â¬â¢ adverse effects on children all for the sake of making an extra buck. The targeting of children by advertisers has left us with a Ã¢â¬Å"obesity epidemicÃ¢â¬ whichRead MoreComparing Contrasting American Japanese Marketing Essay1351 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages although more prominent than ever before, is still a difficult arena for marketers to master. Although religion and culture are not immediately brought to mind when business is brought up, marketing is one aspect of business that is highly sensitive to culture. Not only culture, but also politics, the economy and the law effect marketing strategies. This paper will examine the differences between the American and Japanese marketing environments. CULTURAL INFLUENCES Ã¢â¬Å"It should not be surprisingRead MoreComparing and Contrasting American and Japanese Marketing Essay1307 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages although more prominent than ever before, is still a difficult arena for marketers to master. Although religion and culture are not immediately brought to mind when business is brought up, marketing is one aspect of business that is highly sensitive to culture. Not only culture, but also politics, the economy and the law effect marketing strategies. This paper will examine the differences between the American and Japanese marketing environments. CULTURAL INFLUENCES Ã¢â¬Å"It should not be surprisingRead MoreAnalysis : The Dissent By Thomas Frank1346 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesConformity was once a common concept accepted by many Americans. Citizens were expected to participate in similar behavior, activities, and lifestyles. Advertisers used the desire to conform to societal ideologies in order to endorse and sell their products. However, during the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s cultural revolution, Beats movement, individuals began dismissing the need to conform and began expressing their own individual endeavors. As the result of the rejection of collective conformity advertisers converted
Saturday, December 21, 2019
BSBMKG603B Manage the marketing process ASSESSMENT 1 1. Marketing activities: Any activities that a business or organization undertakes to build brand awareness are known as marketing activities. Even in a time period in which it is easier to create robust marketing materials than ever, the irony is that the larger number of resources means that the competition is only getting stiffer every day. Engaging in marketing activities on a daily basis is vital for ensuring the growth and success of any company. The marketing plan for Houzit stores was developed over 12 months ago and I am actively engaged in implementing the strategies to achieve the marketing objectives. Specifically, I am instigating those marketing activitiesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦To work effectively and efficiently, delegation of work would be as below: Ã¢â" Ã¢â" Ã¢â" Ã¢â" I Ã¢â¬â in-store promotions Tony Ã¢â¬â web pages Marie Ã¢â¬â advertising/PR Lamberts consulting Ã¢â¬â market research and marketing audits. 7. For Summary notes, you must include the point below: Communication: Business communication can also refer to internal communication. A communications director will typically manage internal communication and craft messages sent to employees. It is vital that internal communications are managed properly because a poorly crafted or managed message could foster distrust or hostility from employees. Houzit in short needs to communicate effectively and engage in two flow communication and need to perform the task below: Ã¢â" shared emailing Ã¢â" formal meetings Ã¢â" informal meetings Ã¢â" team visits Ã¢â¬â stores ASSESSMENT 2 1. Strategies: A business strategy is the means by which it sets out to achieve its desired ends (objectives). It can simply be described as a long-term business planning. Typically a business strategy will cover a period of about 3-5 years (sometimes even longer). Below strategies are applicable to Houzit for staffing its company: Ã¢â" maintain enthusiasm Ã¢â" use of wall charts to monitor progress Ã¢â" informal chat Ã¢â" formal weekly meetings. 2. Resources: Some important resources need to be enhanced by Houzit are such as: Ã¢â" key person report Ã¢â" greatest need Ã¢â" greatest returnShow MoreRelatedMarketing Mix - Service 7 Ps1528 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCONTINUUM LEARNING PTE LTD 7Ps of Services Marketing Companies are competing strategically through service quality for greater differentiation in todays competitive marketplace. Successful companies focus on the services-dominant paradigm with investment in people, technology, human resources policies, and compensation linked to service performance of employees. This is important because contact employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ attitudes and behaviours significantly influence the quality of service. They present theRead MoreMarketing Of A Good Cash Flow973 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Marketing plays an important part in successful business undertakings role. The way one markets oneÃ¢â¬â¢s business will determine oneÃ¢â¬â¢s level of success or failure process. The major factor to successful marketing is to know the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ demands, supplies, and mindset. They are the ones to determine whether one stays in business. Look for ways to gather as much insight and suggestions from customers in positive situations as much as possible. Ask for their advice, problems, and insights in everyRead MoreCustomer Relationship Management (CRM)845 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesthem. Good customer relationships are at the core of business achievement. There are many technological mechanisms to CRM, but thinking about CRM in mainly technological terms is a mistake. The more useful way to think about CRM is as a calculated process that will help you better understand your customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs and how you can meet those needs and increase your bottom line at the same time. Thi s strategy depends on gathering lots of pieces of information about customers and market trends so you canRead MoreTen Reasons to Outsource Digital Marketing to a Third Party1299 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages10 reasons to outsource your digital marketing to a third party The decision to outsource a marketing function such as digital marketing can be both strategic and tactical. In general, many companies, as a principle, outsource any activity that is not core to their business. At the tactical level, companies often find themselves short of digital marketing resources to respond to a rapid pace at which it operates across different platforms. Whats right for your company? Following are general guidelinesRead MoreSocial Media Marketing Is Not A Set It And Forget It1042 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesI have said it before and I ll say it again; social media marketing is not a set it and forget it marketing tactic. It takes a lot of work and consistency. It s complicated and can quickly get messy. Those playing the role of a social media manager can attest to the fact that toady s posting, tweeting, snapping, and all those other social posting terms in use today are complex efforts. A multitude of elements goes into a social media campaign such as images, videos, writing, analytics, schedulingRead MoreImpact Of E Commerce On Global Economy1352 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbusiness process perspective, service perspective, and online perspective for buying and selling of products and information online are few to consider for developing e-commerce strategy. Different types of sell-side e-commerce sites are transactional e-commerce sites, which are, Services-oriented relationship-building web sites, Brand-building sites, and Portal, publisher or media sites. Digital marketing, e-marketing is another field which is closely related to e-commerce. Digital marketing involvesRead MoreAutotech Company : Business Analysis1633 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesregularly to achieve organizational objective. The major functions of business are production, selling, financing, marketing, personnel, inventory etc. At present Autotech Company does all these functions without using Information systems. It keeps record of buying and selling of its products, products designing, manufacturing planning, financial management, advertisement, marketing management, Human resources management etc. on paper and manually does tasks those need to pass through various departmentsRead MoreSwot Analysis Of Under Armour972 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesUnder Armour will partner with a lo cal company to handle the manufacturing and distribution of a new premium athletic shoe. Under Armour specialized in product development, marketing and securing endorsement and sponsorship deals. Action/Relaxo specializes in manufacturing and distributing their shoes. Together these two companies will be able produce a premium athletic shoe that will appeal to millennials, the middle class and athletics. A multidivisional structure combining these two companiesRead MoreCustomer Relationship Management ( Crm )1583 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPart I Theoretical Study Chapter 2 : CRM study 2.1 Defining CRM Customer relationship management (CRM) is an approach that companyÃ¢â¬â¢s use to manage, analyze and interact with customers. It refers to the practices, strategies and the technologies used by companies to understand the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and behavior in order to create and build relationships with customers and to follow them throughout the customer lifecycle with a focus on increasing retaining customers with driving the sales growthRead MoreMy Career Statement For Marketing1160 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesNow before I start to talk about my career findings for marketing let me start off by saying, finding a career inspiration is a matter of thinking what wake up every morning for school. Inspiration will always be around oneself, but first, one must have a 100% mindset to continue that goals. In order to find the right career for oneself, one must evaluate interests from deep within themselves. Therefore one must examine all kindsÃ¢â¬â¢ of abilities and values to determine a decision. With all the positions
Friday, December 13, 2019
Political Ã¢â¬â The political risks are the same in any emerging market and all have to be considered by the possible new organisation. ? Russia has a reputation for organised crime and corruption which has long been an issue for any investors. ? There are very strict laws in Russia to do with mode of entry and so the country usually prefers to trade with its former Soviet allies. We will write a custom essay sample on Pest Russia or any similar topic only for you Order Now Potential tourists could be eliminated from entering Russia due to the strict rules on visas for all tourists entering the country. ? There are a number of policies, laws, marketing and advertising, and health and safety requirements which all international organisations must adhere to Ã¢â¬â if they do not they will be punished and may not be able to expand within Russia. Economical Ã¢â¬â Economic growth, population size and income are some of the factors which affect the choice location of firms. This transitional economy is known for high rate of inflation, foreign trade deficits, high rates of unemployment and high costs of capital. ? Although the low labour costs are often what attracts organisations to this emerging market there are a number of hurdles which they must get over before they even get to that stage. ? The global economic crisis has caused the price of oil and gas to Ã¢â¬ËdwindleÃ¢â¬â¢ which has caused huge fluctuations in the Rouble. Ã¢â¬ËThe EIUU forecasts 2. 5% GDP growth for 2010 and 4. 1% for 2011, which represents a stronger and quicker rebound than in Western EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢ (Geieregger, Chawala and Veller 2009) ? Ã¢â¬ËRussia has undergone significant changes since the collapse of the Soviet Union, moving from a globally-isolates, centrally-planned economy to a more market-based and globally-integrated economyÃ¢â¬â¢ (Central Intelligence Agency 2010). Social Russia has the largest land mass in the world spanning over 17,000,000 square kilometres. ? Russia has a low populations growth at -0. 465% Technological ? Certain parts of Russia are improving on their infrastructure. For example Sochi are developing the local rail network as well as redeveloping one of their airport terminals in order to be able to hand the pressure from visitors at the 2014 Olympic Games How to cite Pest Russia, Papers
Thursday, December 5, 2019
THE 1987 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES PREAMBLE We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the aid of Almighty God, in order to build a just and humane society, and establish a Government that shall embody our ideals and aspirations, promote the common good, conserve and develop our patrimony, and secure to ourselves and our posterity, the blessings of independence and democracy under the rule of law and a regime of truth, justice, freedom, love, equality, and peace, do ordain and promulgate this Constitution. ARTICLE I NATIONAL TERRITORY The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced therein, and all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction, consisting of its terrestrial, fluvial and aerial domains, including its territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, the insular shelves, and other submarine areas. The waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal waters of the Philippines. ARTICLE II DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES PRINCIPLES Section 1. The Philippines is a democratic and republican State. Sovereignty resides in the people and all government authority emanates from them. Section 2. The Philippines renounces war as an instrument of national policy, adopts the generally accepted principles of international law as part of the law of the land and adheres to the policy of peace, equality, justice, freedom, cooperation, and amity with all nations. Section 3. Civilian authority is, at all times, supreme over the military. The Armed Forces of the Philippines is the protector of the people and the State. Its goal is to secure the sovereignty of the State and the integrity of the national territory. Section 4. The prime duty of the Government is to serve and protect the people. The Government may call upon the people to defend the State and, in the fulfillment thereof, all citizens may be required, under conditions provided by law, to render personal, military or civil service. Section 5. The maintenance of peace and order, the protection of life, liberty, and property, and promotion of the general welfare are essential for the enjoyment by all the people of the blessings of democracy. Section 6. The separation of Church and State shall be inviolable. STATE POLICIES Section 7. The State shall pursue an independent foreign policy. In its relations with other states, the paramount consideration shall be national sovereignty, territorial integrity, national interest, and the right to self-determination. Section 8. The Philippines, consistent with the national interest, adopts and pursues a policy of freedom from nuclear weapons in its territory. Section 9. The State shall promote a just and dynamic social order that will ensure the prosperity and independence of the nation and free the people from poverty through policies that provide adequate social services, promote full employment, a rising standard of living, and an improved quality of life for all. Section 10. The State shall promote social justice in all phases of national development. Section 11. The State values the dignity of every human person and guarantees full respect for human rights. Section 12. The State recognizes the sanctity of family life and shall protect and strengthen the family as a basic autonomous social institution. It shall equally protect the life of the mother and the life of the unborn from conception. The natural and primary right and duty of parents in the rearing of the youth for civic efficiency and the development of moral character shall receive the support of the Government. Section 13. The State recognizes the vital role of the youth in nation-building and shall promote and protect their physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual, and social well-being. It shall inculcate in the youth patriotism and nationalism, and encourage their involvement in public and civic affairs. Section 14. The State recognizes the role of women in nation-building, and shall ensure the fundamental equality before the law of women and men. Section 15. The State shall protect and promote the right to health of the people and instill health consciousness among them. Section 16. The State shall protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature. Section 17. The State shall give priority to education, science and technology, arts, culture, and sports to foster patriotism and nationalism, accelerate social progress, and promote total human liberation and development. Section 18. The State affirms labor as a primary social economic force. It shall protect the rights of workers and promote their welfare. Section 19. The State shall develop a self-reliant and independent national economy effectively controlled by Filipinos. Section 20. The State recognizes the indispensable role of the private sector, encourages private enterprise, and provides incentives to needed investments. Section 21. The State shall promote comprehensive rural development and agrarian reform. Section 22. The State recognizes and promotes the rights of indigenous cultural communities within the framework of national unity and development. Section 23. The State shall encourage non-governmental, community-based, or sectoral organizations that promote the welfare of the nation. Section 24. The State recognizes the vital role of communication and information in nation-building. Section 25. The State shall ensure the autonomy of local governments. Section 26. The State shall guarantee equal access to opportunities for public service and prohibit political dynasties as may be defined by law. Section 27. The State shall maintain honesty and integrity in the public service and take positive and effective measures against graft and corruption. Section 28. Subject to reasonable conditions prescribed by law, the State adopts and implements a policy of full public disclosure of all its transactions involving public interest. ARTICLE III BILL OF RIGHTS Section 1. No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws. Section 2. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures of whatever nature and for any purpose shall be inviolable, and no search warrant or warrant of arrest shall issue except upon probable cause to be determined personally by the judge after examination under oath or affirmation of the complainant and the witnesses he may produce, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized. Section 3. 1) The privacy of communication and correspondence shall be inviolable except upon lawful order of the court, or when public safety or order requires otherwise, as prescribed by law. (2) Any evidence obtained in violation of this or the preceding section shall be inadmissible for any purpose in any proceeding. Section 4. No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech, of expression, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the government for redress of grievances. Section 5. No law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed. No religious test shall be required for the exercise of civil or political rights. Section 6. The liberty of abode and of changing the same within the limits prescribed by law shall not be impaired except upon lawful order of the court. Neither shall the right to travel be impaired except in the interest of national security, public safety, or public health, as may be provided by law. Section 7. The right of the people to information on matters of public concern shall be recognized. Access to official records, and to documents and papers pertaining to official acts, transactions, or decisions, as well as to government research data used as basis for policy development, shall be afforded the citizen, subject to such limitations as may be provided by law. Section 8. The right of the people, including those employed in the public and private sectors, to form unions, associations, or societies for purposes not contrary to law shall not be abridged. Section 9. Private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation. Section 10. No law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be passed. Section 11. Free access to the courts and quasi-judicial bodies and adequate legal assistance shall not be denied to any person by reason of poverty. Section 12. (1) Any person under investigation for the commission of an offense shall have the right to be informed of his right to remain silent and to have competent and independent counsel preferably of his own choice. If the person cannot afford the services of counsel, he must be provided with one. These rights cannot be waived except in writing and in the presence of counsel. 2) No torture, force, violence, threat, intimidation, or any other means which vitiate the free will shall be used against him. Secret detention places, solitary, incommunicado, or other similar forms of detention are prohibited. (3) Any confession or admission obtained in violation of this or Section 17 hereof shall be inadmissible in evidence against him. (4) The law shall provide for penal and c ivil sanctions for violations of this section as well as compensation to the rehabilitation of victims of torture or similar practices, and their families. Section 13. All persons, except those charged with offenses punishable by reclusion perpetua when evidence of guilt is strong, shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient sureties, or be released on recognizance as may be provided by law. The right to bail shall not be impaired even when the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus is suspended. Excessive bail shall not be required. Section 14. (1) No person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense without due process of law. 2) In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall be presumed innocent until the contrary is proved, and shall enjoy the right to be heard by himself and counsel, to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation against him, to have a speedy, impartial, and public trial, to meet the witnesses face to face, and to have compulsory process to secure the attendance of witnesses and the production of evidence in his behalf. However, after arraignment, trial may proceed notwithstanding the absence of the accused: Provided, that he has been duly notified and his failure to appear is unjustifiable. Section 15. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended except in cases of invasion or rebellion, when the public safety requires it. Section 16. All persons shall have the right to a speedy disposition of their cases before all judicial, quasi-judicial, or administrative bodies. Section 17. No person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself. Section 18. (1) No person shall be detained solely by reason of his political beliefs and aspirations. (2) No involuntary servitude in any form shall exist except as a punishment for a crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted. Section 19. (1) Excessive fines shall not be imposed, nor cruel, degrading or inhuman punishment inflicted. Neither shall death penalty be imposed, unless, for compelling reasons involving heinous crimes, the Congress hereafter provides for it. Any death penalty already imposed shall be reduced to reclusion perpetua. (2) The employment of physical, psychological, or degrading punishment against any prisoner or detainee or the use of substandard or inadequate penal facilities under subhuman conditions shall be dealt with by law. Section 20. No person shall be imprisoned for debt or non-payment of a poll tax. Section 21. No person shall be twice put in jeopardy of punishment for the same offense. If an act is punished by a law and an ordinance, conviction or acquittal under either shall constitute a bar to another prosecution for the same act. Section 22. No ex post facto law or bill of attainder shall be enacted. ARTICLE IV CITIZENSHIP Section 1. The following are citizens of the Philippines:  Those who are citizens of the Philippines at the time of the adoption of this Constitution;  Those whose fathers or mothers are citizens of the Philippines; 3] Those born before January 17, 1973, of Filipino mothers, who elect Philippine citizenship upon reaching the age of majority; and  Those who are naturalized in accordance with law. Section 2. Natural-born citizens are those who are citizens of the Philippines from birth without having to perform any act to acquire or perfect their Philippine citizenship. Those who elect Philippine citizenship in accordance with paragraph (3), Section 1 hereof shall be deemed natural-born citizens. Section 3. Philippine citizenship may be lost or reacquired in the manner provided by law. Section 4. Citizens of the Philippines who marry aliens shall retain their citizenship, unless by their act or omission, they are deemed, under the law, to have renounced it. Section 5. Dual allegiance of citizens is inimical to the national interest and shall be dealt with by law. ARTICLE V SUFFRAGE Section 1. Suffrage may be exercised by all citizens of the Philippines not otherwise disqualified by law, who are at least eighteen years of age, and who shall have resided in the Philippines for at least one year, and in the place wherein they propose to vote, for at least six months immediately preceding the election. No literacy, property, or other substantive requirement shall be imposed on the exercise of suffrage. Section 2. The Congress shall provide a system for securing the secrecy and sanctity of the ballot as well as a system for absentee voting by qualified Filipinos abroad. The Congress shall also design a procedure for the disabled and the illiterates to vote without the assistance of other persons. Until then, they shall be allowed to vote under existing laws and such rules as the Commission on Elections may promulgate to protect the secrecy of the ballot.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Romeo and Juliet Act III Scene I Paper Unlike the opening scenes this scene shows true violence and hatred between both the Montagues and the Capulets. Before this scene the feud between the families has been nothing but petty and harmless one could even say it was quite trivial. If we look at Act II Scene VI, the scene directly before this scene, we notice that Romeo and Juliet are secretly married. To everyone unaware of this marriage nothing has changed but to Romeo and Juliet there has been a substantial alteration. Their entire relationship will be built on secrecy and the actions of others could destroy their bond without even knowing. As we well know that is the case. Act III Scene I is different from the start. It opens with quite a serious atmosphere whereas earlier scenes have been quite joyful and almost comical. The scene begins in the midst of Mercutio and Benvolio quarrelling about whether to leave the streets of Verona. Benvolio is worried as the Capulets are in close proximity and knows that if they met that a colossal fight would break out. I pray thee, good Mercutio lets retire; the day is hot and the Capels are abroad, and if we meet we shall not scape a brawl, for now these hot days is the mad blood stirring. We will write a custom essay sample on Romeo and Juliet Act III Scene I specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Romeo and Juliet Act III Scene I specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Romeo and Juliet Act III Scene I specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer This opens up to the audience exactly what is going to happen next. By looking at the clues they will see that Mercutio is in a particularly aggressive mood. He is calling Benvolio and making two-faced comments such as Nay, and there were two such, we should have none shortly, for one would kill the other. Thou! why, thou wilt quarrel with a man that hath a hair more, or a hair less, in his beard, than thou hast: thou wilt quarrel with a man for cracking nuts Looking at Mercutios character he is also quite easily aggravated which makes this comment two-faced. If we take a look at the Queen Mab speech we can distinguish various similarities and differences in his language. Here although speaking in verse his speech is more of what we would expect of Mercutio as it is very dramatic and strange. Whereas in Act III Scene I his language is very bawdy and discontented as it is written in prose rather than his poetic language he used before. Although these are two quite different types of Mercutio we are introduced to we can still expect this of him as he has that two-faced, unpredictable personality. Although aggression has been seen in this scene violence has yet to come. But it is not too far away when the Capulets enter. At first Mercutio tries not to get involved and looks as though he doesnt care that they are their. But he cannot hold back. Tension slowly starts to build up and still looking as though he isnt bothered Mercutio replies with petty insults towards Tybalt. He is determined to start an argument whether he desires one or not. Tybalt does not, at least not with him anyway, he has come seeking Romeo but Romeo is not present. At this point the audience is riveted to what is going to happen next. So when Romeo enters it is no surprise that the tension factor steps up another gear. But still tension has not yet reached its peak as Romeo does not wish to fight. Tybalt not aware of Romeos relation to him tries his best to begin the fateful argument by insulting Romeo. Romeo, the hate I bear thee can afford no better term than this, thou art a villain. Tybalt has no good reason for fighting with Romeo other than him attending the Capulets feast. I dont think the disastrous events about to take place can be blamed on bad luck and that Romeo was to walk in at the wrong time right into an explosive situation. This scene would have happened sooner or later as Tybalt was out seeking Romeo. After just being married to Juliet Romeo is not in the right frame of mind to be fighting. He is calm and cheerful and even in an atmosphere of hatred, where all the signs are pointing toward aggression, his good nature gets the better of him. No doubt it is difficult for Romeo as he isnt a coward but feels humiliation for the moment. He will not be provoked. Tybalt, the reason that I have to love thee doth much excuse the appertaining rage to such a greeting: villain am I none, therefore farewell. I see thou knowest me not. Romeo is not weak but his love for Juliet is dominating his aggression or hate. The influence of his love for Juliet makes grace more powerful than rude will. At this point Tybalt may be confused over why Romeo gave such a composed answer but here the audience will understand exactly why he has done this. Although the same cannot be said about Mercutio who interprets Romeos response as cowardice. His aggression has finally got the better of him as he throws himself towards Tybalt with his all out rage. O calm, dishonourable, vile submission! Alla stoccata carries it away. Tybalt, you rat-catcher, will you walk? As they fight it seems that it is nothing more than a playground tussle. Mercutios rage seems to have calmed and he is back to his comical self or is this just for show? When Romeo intervenes and Mercutio is stabbed the audience can only react on the characters response. Notice that Tybalt flees this is the first reaction to how serious Mercutio has been injured. But when Mercutio tells everyone that the wound is just a scratch it takes the significance of the atmosphere away. Ay, ay, a scratch, a scratch; marry, tis enough. Where is my page? Go, villain, fetch a surgeon Mercutio is still angry inside and this is shown when he tells Romeo that he was hurt under his arm. Still the audience cannot be too sure whether the wound is fatal or not until Mercutio begins to curse furiously. Help me into some house, Benvolio, or I shall faint. A plague o both your houses! They have made worms meat of me: I have it, and soundly too: your houses! The fact that this curse comes from a dying man makes it such a more powerful warning of disaster to come. It is too late now but Mercutio finally sees that the mindless feud between the families has destroyed him for no good reason. Right up until Mercutio dies the audience are kept in the dark to whether the injury was lethal. There are signs showing that he was going to die but even till the last minute the characters were laughing and joking about the issue. Romeos calm composure has completely vanished as the only thing he sees is Tybalts death. As he races towards Tybalt, Benvolio tries to keep peace again. He is unsuccessful as Romeos lust for revenge is now too high to stop. As they battle it out in a fight to fatality dramatic tension rockets sky high and finally reaches it peak. Finally, after Tybalt is deceased the Prince enters in on the scene. Benvolio gives his account of the story as he is trustworthy, although it is biased towards Romeo. The Prince gives his final statement. And for that offence immediately we do exile him hence. Let Romeo hence in haste, else, when hes found, that hour is his last. This scene is a pivotal point in the play as it has a ripple affect on the following scenes. From here on everything changes and Romeo and Juliets marriage is put at risk. Dramatic irony plays a huge role in this scene as only those aware of the marriage know the true reason behind Romeo and Juliets distress.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Dominos Pizza Essay Example Dominos Pizza Essay Dominos Pizza Essay This price is only high because there are many things that make this price up. The things that Id get, is the right to use the Pizza Hut trademarks, its system for preparing, marketing and selling food products, its information and specifications. Those were only some of them. There is also some allowance, which is included in the total investment cost but isnt part of the initial fee, for management and staff training. The equipment cost is also included in the total price although; it will vary depending on the site. The franchise agreement is a 10-year term with a 5-year break. Pizza Hut gives the most comprehensive training that there is around. They say that they wont just hand over the keys and let me get on with it; they will train me until I feel comfortable and confident. They will give me about 13 weeks of training. This training is before I open up. Within these weeks, Id get experience in existing stores and we also get tuition in the classrooms. As this goes on, I get on going support from a dedicated Franchise Business Manager and their Restaurant Support Centre. Once Id have started up, I wouldnt have to worry about creativity, production or media costs. This means that Id benefit from their national advertising and PR. On top of all of this, Pizza Hut are always developing new products and bringing them to the market. This is a process that involves a huge amount of research; therefore this is another worry that I would have to bother with. So, all Id have to do is take their ideas, put them into practise and then sit back and watch the money roll in. If you think about it, this training course is pretty impressive. Once Id have chosen the site that I decided to build on. Pizza Hut says that they will give me a list of approved designers, contractors and proprietary equipment suppliers. This is so that I can choose from them to construct the unit. Even though Id get to choose whom I want to build the site, the specifications would have already been agreed. As Id go along, Pizza Hut would approve all the drawings and would be attending all the site meetings, just to ensure that the store is completed to their specifications. This would then minimise the risk of any costly mistakes. If I wanted a third party contractor, to provide a complete project management service, Id have to pay extra. Pizza Hut says that they cant tell me what the pay back time is. Conclusion From all the research that I have done, I have decided that I am going to open up a Dominos Pizza franchise. There are many reasons for why I have chosen this franchise. The investment costs are one of the main reasons. Dominos Pizza has an investment cost of 160,000. Pizza Hut has an investment cost betweenÃ 150,000 and 185,000. Even though, Pizza Hut says that Id have to negotiate with them for the final amount, I still think that after the final amount is agreed, there will still be costs that I will have to pay for. Also the investment cost for Dominos Pizza is including every thing that Id have to pay for, Pizza Huts isnt. Another reason is that Dominos Pizza says that the pay back time is five years. Pizza Hut says that it all depends on the way the manager runs the restaurant, but I think that theyre just avoiding the question. One other main reason is because there are fewer hours with Dominos Pizza. I dont want long hours everyday. Therefore, Dominos Pizza seems like the best option.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
WGST 400 Assignment 3 - Research Proposal Example The rise of women power was keenly observed in the society prior to the World War I. In Britain, Americas and Canada, growth of women in society happened owing to the changing society and the different waves of political and societal turmoil that threatened to economical stability. Feminism not only grew on the basis of women power, but also on the basis of support from the clergy. Experts commented that women who were being elected at presidential posts in the several societal bodies were making it there because of the backing of their present or deceased husbands. Critics also pointed out in many examples that women tend to be more emotional, violent and often devastating than men, when it comes to collective thinking and individual activity. While these arguments were backed by individual examples, none of them were found to be true for a collective movement of feminism which was always restrained and based on instinctive decision making of some o f the prominent members of the ed ucated women community. In Canada, several feminism waves have been seen in history. As always, it is believed that each of these waves arose as a response to the changes that the society was going through at that point of time. There have been serious pacifist feminism waves in Canada in 1890-1930. Other modern feminism waves seen in Canada belong to the 1960-1975 and 1990 to present eras. Needless to say, pacifism, which depicted peace loving feminism grew out of the oppression that men offered in society. Women realized that instead of acting supportive or resilient to the oppressive nature of men, it would be wise to keep themselves string through a movement that propagates the main goals of societal living as understood best by them. And this included peaceful co-existence and control, devoid of torture, oppression and poverty, something that was welcomed wholeheartedly in the nineteenth century. In Canada, the growth of feminism was in tandem with similar
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Price-Hike-Train-Wreck - Netflix - Assignment Example f customers from Netflix provided a huge opportunity to its competitors and the company began running losses, which was worse than expected (Sandoval, 2012). The basic problem, which had led to the meltdown of Netflix, was the pace at which it had been advancing to change its business model. The problem was twofold. If the company had chosen to act too slowly, then it could have lost out on its business to its competitors, who propagated online streaming; and if it continued to advance very fast, then it could have alienated its customers. The pace of the operation and the haphazard way in which it was conducted, led to the major fall. Following are the ways in which the company could have saved its position. Firstly, the company should have played the ball strategically and instead of delivering the bad news of 60% price hike, it should have first released the news about signing of streaming deals with eight new studios, including Paramount, Sony and Miramax and more than 3,500 TV episodes from 15 different network and cable stations, to gain the trust of customers (Adams, 2011). Thirdly, the company could have started its video streaming business, as a subsidiary to its main DVD business, under the same brand and once this genre had gained popularity, it could have phased out the DVD business. The idea that the company was trying to propagate was not incorrect. The popularity of DVD rentals is fast diminishing and demand for online streaming is increasing, despite the fact that quality of the latter is inferior to that of the former. This is because online streaming has no shipping costs and revenues that can be earned from this business is higher than that earned from the business of DVD rentals. The closure of the large DVD rental chains signals the fact that betting on this business will no longer be profitable (Mendelson, 2013). In this regard, the vision of the company was ahead of its times and perhaps to some extent reasonable, but the pace of
Monday, November 18, 2019
Google - Essay Example This paper describes the Google search engine and tells more about Google Inc. The company started from nearly 2 million websites in its database in 1998, which grew up to a trillion websites just after twelve years showing the speed of the growth of this search engine. No other search engine has shown such a rapid increase in its website database as yet which is one of the many signs for Google to remain the market leader at least for the next decade. Another noticeable point is that the interface of the Google search engine is very user-friendly. Users can find their required web pages using customized setting. If a user wants to find some book, he/she can search that book using Ã¢â¬ËGoogle BooksÃ¢â¬â¢ search. Similarly, if a user wants to find a scholarly journal, he/she can search it using Ã¢â¬ËGoogle ScholarÃ¢â¬â¢ search. Google also makes use of rating mechanism, which helps in retrieving the most relevant websites. Other search engines can hardly differentiate between the relevant and irrelevant web pages because of which they generate all those websites in which the key words exist regardless of their relevance. On the other hand, Google makes use of rank-ordering system, which puts the most relevant websites at the top positions. Google does not rank pages on the basis amount of information that they contain about any particular topic, rather it ranks pages based on the amount of relevant data or information. This feature also distinguishes Google from other search engines and points towards GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s dominance in internet search over the next decade. Answer No. 4 GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s attempts to launch new products have been remarkable and successful so far. Whatever products Google has launched until now have played a considerable role in increasing the yearly revenue and net income of the comp any. The thing is that there is always a well-planned strategy behind the launch of every Google product which ensures long-term success of the product in local and international markets. The company makes use of latest and well-equipped information technology infrastructure to create new products. Some of the main products which have proven to be highly productive for the company include Google search tools, language tools, advertising services, publishing tools, communication tools, and Google statistical tools. These are just the broad categories of Google products. The actual product line includes a wide range of products under each category. Google has also entered the world of web browsers, email, and mobile internet. From the usage rates of all of these products, it is evident that the company has been successful so far in each of these fields. For example, nearly 100 million people use
Friday, November 15, 2019
Software testing 1.0 Software Testing Activities We start testing activities from the first phase of the software development life cycle. We may generate test cases from the SRS and SDD documents and use them during system and acceptance testing. Hence, development and testing activities are carried out simultaneously in order to produce good quality maintainable software in time and within budget. We may carry out testing at many levels and may also take help of a software testing tool. Whenever we experience a failure, we debug the source code to find reasons for such a failure. Finding the reasons of a failure is very significant testing activity and consumes huge amount of resources and may also delay the release of the software. 1.1 Levels of Testing Software testing is generally carried out at different levels. There are four such levels namely unit testing, integration testing, system testing, and acceptance testing as shown in figure 8.1. First three levels of testing activities are done by the testers and last level of testing (acceptance) is done by the customer(s)/user(s). Each level has specific testing objectives. For example, at unit testing level, independent units are tested using functional and/or structural testing techniques. At integration testing level, two or more units are combined and testing is carried out to test the integration related issues of various units. At system testing level, the system is tested as a whole and primarily functional testing techniques are used to test the system. Non functional requirements like performance, reliability, usability, testability etc. are also tested at this level. Load/stress testing is also performed at this level. Last level i.e. acceptance testing is done by the cus tomer(s)/users for the purpose of accepting the final product. 1.1.1 Unit Testing We develop software in parts / units and every unit is expected to have defined functionality. We may call it a component, module, procedure, function etc, which will have a purpose and may be developed independently and simultaney. A. Bertolino and E. Marchetti have defined a unit as [BERT07]: A unit is the smallest testable piece of software, which may consist of hundreds or even just few lines of source code, and generally represents the result of the work of one or few developers. The unit test cases purpose is to ensure that the unit satisfies its functional specification and / or that its implemented structure matches the intended design structure. [BEIZ90, PFLE01]. There are also problems with unit testing. How can we run a unit independently? A unit may not be completely independent. It may be calling few units and also called by one or more units. We may have to write additional source code to execute a unit. A unit X may call a unit Y and a unit Y may call a unit A and a unit B as shown in figure 8.2(a). To execute a unit Y independently, we may have to write additional source code in a unit Y which may handle the activities of a unit X and the activities of a unit A and a unit B. The additional source code to handle the activities of a unit X is called driver and the additional source code to handle the activities of a unit A and a unit B is called stub. The complete additional source code which is written for the design of stub and driver is called scaffolding. The scaffolding should be removed after the completion of unit testing. This may help us to locate an error easily due to small size of a unit. Many white box testing techniques may be effectively applicable at unit level. We should keep stubs and drivers simple and small in size to reduce the cost of testing. If we design units in such a way that they can be tested without writing stubs and drivers, we may be very efficient and lucky. Generally, in practice, it may be difficult and thus requirement of stubs and drivers may not be eliminated. We may only minimize the requirement of scaffolding depending upon the functionality and its division in various units. 1.1.2 Integration Testing A software may have many units. We test units independently during unit testing after writing required stubs and drivers. When we combine two units, we may like to test the interfaces amongst these units. We combine two or more units because they share some relationship. This relationship is represented by an interface and is known as coupling. The coupling is the measure of the degree of interdependence between units. Two units with high coupling are strongly connected and thus, dependent on each other. Two units with low coupling are weakly connected and thus have low dependency on each other. Hence, highly coupled units are heavily dependent on other units and loosely coupled units are comparatively less dependent on other units as shown in figure 8.3. Coupling increases as the number of calls amongst units increases or the amount of shared data increases. The design with high coupling may have more errors. Loose coupling minimize the interdependence and some of the steps to minimize the coupling are given as: (i) Pass only data, not the control information. (ii) Avoid passing undesired data. (iii) Minimize parent / child relationship between calling and called units. (iv) Minimize the number of parameters to be passed between two units. (v) Avoid passing complete data structure. (vi) Do not declare global variables. (vii) Minimize the scope of variables. Different types of coupling are data (best), stamp, control, external, common and content (worst). When we design test cases for interfaces, we should be very clear about the coupling amongst units and if it is high, large number of test cases should be designed to test that particular interface. A good design should have low coupling and thus interfaces become very important. When interfaces are important, their testing will also be important. In integration testing, we focus on the issues related to interfaces amongst units. There are several integration strategies that really have little basis in a rational methodology and are given in figure 8.4. Top down integration starts from the main unit and keeps on adding all called units of next level. This portion should be tested thoroughly by focusing on interface issues. After completion of integration testing at this level, add next level of units and as so on till we reach the lowest level units (leaf units). There will not be any requirement of drivers and only stubs will be designed. In bottom-up integration, we start from the bottom, (i.e. from leaf units) and keep on adding upper level units till we reach the top (i.e. root node). There will not be any need of stubs. A sandwich strategy runs from top and bottom concurren tly, depending upon the availability of units and may meet somewhere in the middle. (b) Bottom up integration (focus starts from edges i, j and so on) c) Sandwich integration (focus starts from a, b, i, j and so on) Each approach has its own advantages and disadvantages. In practice, sandwich integration approach is more popular. This can be started as and when two related units are available. We may use any functional or structural testing techniques to design test cases. The functional testing techniques are easy to implement with a particular focus on the interfaces and some structural testing techniques may also be used. When a new unit is added as a part of integration testing then the software is considered as a changed software. New paths are designed and new input(s) and output(s) conditions may emerge and new control logic may invoke. These changes may also cause problems with units that previously worked flawlessly. 1.1.3 System Testing We perform system testing after the completion of unit and integration testing. We test complete software alongwith its expected environment. We generally use functional testing techniques, although few structural testing techniques may also be used. A system is defined as a combination of the software, hardware and other associated parts that together provide product features and solutions. System testing ensures that each system function works as expected and it also tests for non-functional requirements like performance, security, reliability, stress, load etc. This is the only phase of testing which tests both functional and non-functional requirements of the system. A team of the testing persons does the system testing under the supervision of a test team leader. We also review all associated documents and manuals of the software. This verification activity is equally important and may improve the quality of the final product. Utmost care should be taken for the defects found during system testing phase. A proper impact analysis should be done before fixing the defect. Sometimes, if system permits, instead of fixing the defects are just documented and mentioned as the known limitation. This may happen in a situation when fixing is very time consuming or technically it is not possible in the present design etc. Progress of system testing also builds confidence in the development team as this is the first phase in which complete product is tested with a specific focus on customers expectations. After the completion of this phase, customers are invited to test the software. 1.1.4 Acceptance Testing This is the extension of system testing. When testing team feels that the product is ready for the customer(s), they invite the customer(s) for demonstration. After demonstration of the product, customer(s) may like to use the product for their satisfaction and confidence. This may range from adhoc usage to systematic well-planned usage of the product. This type of usage is essential before accepting the final product. The testing done for the purpose of accepting a product is known as acceptance testing. This may be carried out by the customer(s) or persons authorized by the customer. The venue may be developers site or customers site depending on the mutual agreement. Generally, acceptance testing is carried out at the customers site. Acceptance testing is carried out only when the software is developed for a particular customer(s). If, we develop software for anonymous customers (like operating systems, compilers, case tools etc), then acceptance testing is not feasible. In such c ases, potential customers are identified to test the software and this type of testing is called alpha / beta testing. Beta testing is done by many potential customers at their sites without any involvement of developers / testers. Although alpha testing is done by some potential customers at developers site under the direction and supervision of testers. 1.2 Debugging Whenever a software fails, we would like to understand the reason(s) of such a failure. After knowing the reason(s), we may attempt to find solution and may make necessary changes in the source code accordingly. These changes will hopefully remove the reason(s) of that software failure. The process of identifying and correcting a software error is known as debugging. It starts after receiving a failure report and completes after ensuring that all corrections have been rightly placed and the software does not fail with the same set of input(s). The debugging is quite a difficult phase and may become one of the reasons of the software delays. Every bug detection process is different and it is difficult to know how long it will take to find and fix a bug. Sometimes, it may not be possible to detect a bug or if a bug is detected, it may not be feasible to correct it at all. These situations should be handled very carefully. In order to remove bugs, developer must first discover that a problem exists, then classify the bug, locate where the problem actually lies in the source code, and finally correct the problem. 1.2.1 Why debugging is so difficult? Debugging is a difficult process. This is probably due to human involvement and their psychology. Developers become uncomfortable after receiving any request of debugging. It is taken against their professional pride. Shneiderman [SHNE80] has rightly commented on human aspect of debugging as: It is one of the most frustrating parts of programming. It has elements of problem solving or brain teasers, coupled with the annoying recognition that we have made a mistake. Heightened anxiety and the unwillingness to accept the possibility of errors, increase the task difficulty. Fortunately, there is a great sigh of relief and a lessening of tension when the bug is ultimately corrected. These comments explain the difficulty of debugging. Pressman [PRES97] has given some clues about the characteristics of bugs as: The debugging process attempts to match symptom with cause, thereby leading to error correction. The symptom and the cause may be geographically remote. That is, symptom may appear in one part of program, while the cause may actually be located in other part. Highly coupled program structures may further complicate this situation. Symptom may also disappear temporarily when another error is corrected. In real time applications, it may be difficult to accurately reproduce the input conditions. In some cases, symptom may be due to causes that are distributed across a number of tasks running on different processors. There may be many reasons which may make debugging process difficult and time consuming. However, psychological reasons are more prevalent over technical reasons. Over the years, debugging techniques have substantially improved and they will continue to develop significantly in the near future. Some debugging tools are available and they minimize the human involvement in the debugging process. However, it is still a difficult area and consumes significant amount of time and resources. 1.2.2 Debugging Process Debugging means detecting and removing bugs from the programs. Whenever a program generates an unexpected behaviour, it is known as a failure of the program. This failure may be mild, annoying, disturbing, serious, extreme, catastrophic or infectious. Depending on the type of failure, actions are required to be taken. Debugging process starts after receiving a failure report either from testing team or from users. The steps of the debugging process are replication of the bug, understanding the bug, locate the bug, fix the bug and retest the program. (i) Replication of the bug: The first step in fixing a bug is to replicate it. This means to recreate the undesired behaviour under controlled conditions. The same set of input(s) should be given under similar conditions to the program and the program, after execution, should produce similar unexpected behaviour. If this happens, we are able to replicate a bug. In many cases, this is simple and straight forward. We execute the program on a particular input(s) or we press a particular button on a particular dialog, and the bug occurs. In other cases, replication may be very difficult. It may require many steps or in an interactive program such as a game, it may require precise timing. In worst cases, replication may be nearly impossible. If we do not replicate the bug, how will we verify the fix? Hence, failure to replicate a bug is a real problem. If we cannot do it, any action, which cannot be verified, has no meaning, how so ever important it may be. Some of the reasons for non-replication of bug are: ÃâÃ · The user incorrectly reported the problem. ÃâÃ · The program has failed due to hardware problems like memory overflow, poor network connectivity, network congestion, non availability of system buses, deadlock conditions etc. ÃâÃ · The program has failed due to system software problems. The reason may be the usage of different type of operating system, compilers, device drivers etc. there may be any above mentioned reason for the failure of the program, although there is no inherent bug in program for this particular failure. Our effort should be to replicate the bug. If we cannot do so, it is advisable to keep the matter pending till we are able to replicate it. There is no point in playing with the source code for a situation which is not reproducible. (ii) Understanding the bug After replicating the bug, we may like to understand the bug. This means, we want to find the reason(s) of this failure. There may be one or more reasons and is generally the most time consuming activity. We should understand the program very clearly for understanding a bug. If we are the designers and source code writers, there may not be any problem for understanding the bug. If not, then we may even have more serious problems. If readability of the program is good and associated documents are available, we may be able to manage the problem. If readability is not that good, (which happens in many situations) and associated documents are not proper, situation becomes very difficult and complex. We may call the designers, if we are lucky, they may be available with the company and we may get them. Imagine otherwise, what will happen? This is a real challenging situation and in practice many times, we have to face this and struggle with the source code and documents written by the per sons not available with the company. We may have to put effort in order to understand the program. We may start from the first statement of the source code to the last statement with a special focus on critical and complex areas of the source code. We should be able to know, where to look in the source code for any particular activity. It should also tell us the general way in which the program acts. The worst cases are large programs written by many persons over many years. These programs may not have consistency and may become poorly readable over time due to various maintenance activities. We should simply do the best and try to avoid making the mess worse. We may also take the help of source code analysis tools for examining the large programs. A debugger may also be helpful for understanding the program. A debugger inspects a program statement wise and may be able to show the dynamic behaviour of the program using a breakpoint. The breakpoints are used to pause the program at any time needed. At every breakpoint, we may look at values of variables, contents of relevant memory locations, registers etc. The main point is that in order to understand a bug, program understanding is essential. We should put desired effort before finding the reasons of the software failure. If we fail to do so, unnecessarily, we may waste our effort, which is neither required nor desired. (iii) Locate the bug There are two portions of the source code which need to be considered for locating a bug. First portion of the source code is one which causes the visible incorrect behaviour and second portion of the source code is one which is actually incorrect. In most of the situations, both portions may overlap and sometimes, both portions may be in different parts of the program. We should first find the source code which causes the incorrect behaviour. After knowing the incorrect behaviour and its related portion of the source code, we may find the portion of the source code which is at fault. Sometimes, it may be very easy to identify the problematic source code (second portion of the source code) with manual inspection. Otherwise, we may have to take the help of a debugger. If we have core dumps, a debugger can immediately identify the line which fails. A core dumps is the printout of all registers and relevant memory locations. We should document them and also retain them for possible futu re use. We may provide breakpoints while replicating the bug and this process may also help us to locate the bug. Sometimes simple print statements may help us to locate the sources of the bad behaviour. This simple way provides us the status of various variables at different locations of the program with specific set of inputs. A sequence of print statements may also portray the dynamics of variable changes. However, it is cumbersome to use in large programs. They may also generate superfluous data which may be difficult to analyze and manage. Another useful approach is to add check routines in the source code to verify that data structures are in a valid state. Such routines may help us to narrow down where data corruption occurs. If the check routines are fast, we may want to always enable them. Otherwise, leave them in the source code, and provide some sort of mechanism to turn them on when we need them. The most useful and powerful way is to do the source code inspection. This may help us to understand the program, understand the bug and finally locate the bug. A clear understanding of the program is an absolute requirement of any debugging activity. Sometimes, bug may not be in the program at all. It may be in a library routine or in the operating system, or in the compiler. These cases are very rare, but there are chances and if everything fails, we may have to look for such options. (iv) Fix the bug and retest the program After locating the bug, we may like to fix the bug. The fixing of a bug is a programming exercise rather than a debugging activity. After making necessary changes in the source code, we may have to retest the source code in order to ensure that the corrections have been rightly done at right place. Every change may affect other portions of the source code also. Hence an impact analysis is required to identify the affected portion and that portion should also be retested thoroughly. This retesting activity is called regression testing which is very important activity of any debugging process. 1.2.3 Debugging Approaches There are many popular debugging approaches, but success of any approach is dependant upon the understanding of the program. If the persons involved in debugging understand the program correctly, they may be able to detect and remove the bugs. (i) Trial and Error Method This approach is dependent on the ability and experience of the debugging persons. After getting a failure report, it is analyzed and program is inspected. Based on experience and intelligence, and also using hit and trial technique, the bug is located and a solution is found. This is a slow approach and becomes impractical in large programs. (ii) Backtracking This can be used successfully in small programs. We start at the point where program gives incorrect result such as unexpected output is printed. After analyzing the output, we trace backward the source code manually until a cause of the failure is found. The source code from the statement where symptoms of failure is found to the statement where cause of failure is found is analyzed properly. This technique brackets the locations of the bug in the program. Subsequent careful study of bracketed location may help us to rectify the bug. Another obvious variation of backtracking is forward tracking, where we use print statements or other means to examine a succession of intermediate results to determine at what point the result first became wrong. These approaches (backtracking and forward tracking) may be useful only when the size of the program is small. As the program size increases, it becomes difficult to manage these approaches. (iii) Brute Force This is probably the most common and efficient approach to identify the cause of a software failure. In this approach, memory dumps are taken and run time traces are invoked and the program is loaded with print statements. When this is done, we may find a clue by the information produced which leads to identification of cause of a bug. Memory traces are similar to memory dumps, except that the printout contains only certain memory and register contents and printing is conditional on some event occurring. Typically conditional events are entry, exit or use of one of the following: (a) A particular subroutine, statement or database (b) Communication with I/O devices (c) Value of a variable (d) Timed actuations (periodic or random) in certain real time system. A special problem with trace programs is that the conditions are entered in the source code and any changes require a recompilation. The huge amount of data is generated which although may help to identify the cause but may be difficult to manage and analyze. (iv) Cause Elimination Cause elimination is manifested by induction or deduction and also introduces the concept of binary partitioning. Data related to error occurrence are organized to isolate potential causes. Alternatively, a list of all possible causes is developed and tests are conducted to eliminate each. Therefore, we may rule out causes one by one until a single one remains for validation. The cause is identified, properly fixed and retested accordingly. 1.2.4 Debugging Tools Many debugging tools are available to support the debugging process. Some of the manual activities can also be automated using a tool. We may need a tool that may execute every statement of a program at a time and print values of any variable after executing every statement of the program. We will be free from inserting print statements in the program manually. Thus, run time debuggers are designed. In principle, a run time debugger is nothing more than an automatic print statement generator. It allows us to trace the program path and the variables without having to put print statements in the source code. Every compiler available in the market comes with run time debugger. It allows us to compile and run the program with a single compilation, rather than modifying the source code and recompiling as we try to narrow down the bug. Run time debuggers may detect bugs in the program, but may fail to find the causes of failures. We may need a special tool to find causes of failures and correct the bug. Some errors like memory corruption and memory leaks may be detected automatically. The automation was the modification in debugging process, because it automated the process of finding the bug. A tool may detect an error, and our job is to simply fix it. These tools are known as automatic debugger and come in several varieties. The simplest ones are just a library of functions that can be linked into a program. When the program executes and these functions are called, the debugger checks for memory corruption, if it finds this, it reports it. Compilers are also used for finding bugs. Of course, they check only syntax errors and particular type of run time errors. Compilers should give proper and detailed messages of errors that will be of great help to the debugging process. Compilers may give all such information in the attribute table, which is printed along with the listing. The attribute table contains various levels of warnings which have been picked up by the compiler scan and which are noted. Hence, compilers are coming with error detection feature and there is no excuse to design compilers without meaningful error messages. We may apply wide variety of tools like run time debugger, automatic debugger, automatic test case generators, memory dumps, cross reference maps, compilers etc during the debugging process. However, tools are not the substitute for careful examination of the source code after thorough understanding. 1.3 Software Testing Tools The most important effort consuming task in software testing is to design the test cases. The execution of these test cases may not require much time and resources. Hence, designing part is more significant than execution part. Both parts are normally handled manually. Do we really need a tool? If yes, where and when can we use it? In first part (designing of test cases) or second part (execution of test cases) or both. Software testing tools may be used to reduce the time of testing and to make testing as easy and pleasant as possible. Automated testing may be carried out without human involvement. This may help us in the areas where similar data set is to be given as input to the program again and again. A tool may do the repeated testing, unattended also, during nights or weekends without human intervention. Many non-functional requirements may be tested with the help of a tool. We want to test the performance of a software under load, which may require many computers, manpower and other resources. A tool may simulate multiple users on one computer and also a situation when many users are accessing a database simultaneously. There are three broad categories of software testing tools i.e. static, dynamic and process management. Most of the tools fall clearly into one of the categories but there are few exceptions like mutation analysis system which falls in more than one the categories. A wide variety of tools are available with different scope and quality and they assist us in many ways. 1.3.1 Static software testing tools Static software testing tools are those that perform analysis of the programs without executing them at all. They may also find the source code which will be hard to test and maintain. As we all know, static testing is about prevention and dynamic testing is about cure. We should use both the tools but prevention is always better than cure. These tools will find more bugs as compared to dynamic testing tools (where we execute the program). There are many areas for which effective static testing tools are available, and they have shown their results for the improvement of the quality of the software. (i) Complexity analysis tools Complexity of a program plays very important role while determining its quality. A popular measure of complexity is the cyclomatic complexity as discussed in chapter 4. This gives us the idea about the number of independent paths in the program and is dependent upon the number of decisions in the program. Higher value of cyclomatic complexity may indicate about poor design and risky implementation. This may also be applied at module level and higher cyclomatic complexity value modules may either be redesigned or may be tested very thoroughly. There are other complexity measures also which are used in practice like Halstead software size measures, knot complexity measure etc. Tools are available which are based on any of the complexity measure. These tools may take the program as an input, process it and produce a complexity value as output. This value may be an indicator of the quality of design and implementation. (ii) Syntax and Semantic Analysis Tools These tools find syntax and semantic errors. Although compiler may detect all syntax errors during compilation, but early detection of such errors may help to minimize other associated errors. Semantic errors are very significant and compilers are helpless to find such errors. There are tools in the market that may analyze the program and find errors. Non-declaration of a variable, double declaration of a variable, divide by zero issue, unspecified inputs, non-initialization of a variable are some of the issues which may be detected by semantic analysis tools. These tools are language dependent and may parse the source code, maintain a list of errors and provide implementation information. The parser may find semantic errors as well as make an inference as to what is syntactically correct. (iii) Flow graph generator tools These tools are language dependent and take the program as an input and convert it to its flow graph. The flow graph may be used for many purposes like complexity calculation, paths identification, generation of definition use paths, program slicing etc. These
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Where is the Life we have lost in living? Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge? Where is the knowledge we have lost in information?Ã¢â¬ T.S. Eliot (T.S. Eliot Quotes.) TS Eliot was not only a poet, but a poet that wanted to change his world. He was writing in the hopes that it would give his society a reality check that would encourage them to change themselves and make their lives more worthwhile. Through his themes of alienation, isolation, and giving an example of a decaying society, TS Eliot wanted to change his society. Alienation is a common theme that consistently runs throughout TS EliotÃ¢â¬â¢s poetry. Eliot knew how alienation felt first hand through his experience of being born in Missouri and later moving to Boston to go to college. He described himself as feeling like a New Englander in the Southwest, and a South westerner in New England (Bush, TS EliotÃ¢â¬â¢s Life and Career). Knowing this feeling made it easy for him to write many poems concerning this idea such as Rhapsody on a Windy Night. Half-past two, The street lamp said, "Remark the cat which flattens itself in the gutter, Slips out its tongue And devours a morsel of rancid butter." So the hand of a child, automatic, Slipped out and pocketed a toy that was running along the quay. I could see nothing behind that child's eye. (Poetry Archive) This poem doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t deal with alienation where a person is all alone and there is absolutely no one around. In fact, there are people present but they ...
Sunday, November 10, 2019
In this task, I will need to decide what the core activity is in each of my two businesses and whether they are dealing with products, services or both. In the UK some of these business activities are becoming more common and others are becoming less common. I will need to find out the broad trends for these business activities and how they affect the businesses that I am investigating. The legal status of Freelance Audio Productions is an equal partnership between Martin and Nikki Rider. The company was set up in 1986, but has only been trading as Freelance Audio Productions for four years. The company doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t make a product, the service it provides is audio production based which includes performance arts, supplying of equipment and supplying of production services and facilities. FAP falls into the category of the Tertiary Sector. There are many departments that operate within FAP, but there are two departments that control most of Freelance Audio Productions. These are Sta ge sound and Showbiz. Stage Sound. FAP Stage Sound has been in operation for fourteen years but has only been working under Freelance Audio Productions for the last four years. FAP Stage Sound specialises in renting out sound equipment and educating young trainees. FAP Stage Sound is a continuously growing business which is also shown in the trend of the tertiary sector. Showbiz. FAP Showbiz controls all of the private singing and dancing lessons and the Pop School. FAP Pop School is the newest addition to Freelance Audio Productions. The main target of this is to educate people, mainly children, form the ages of two upwards in the field of music and dance. Girls and boys of all ages learn to sing and dance and put together routines. Shows are then put on as large events where many tickets are sold but little profit is made. Graph showing the Tertiary sector total. (See Appendix 1) FAP and connections with the sectors. Freelance Audio Productions works under the tertiary sector in the departments of other services and education. The Stage Sound aspect of FAP comes under other services, and the private lessons and Pop School comes under education. (See Appendix 2) Freelance Audio has no direct connections with any of the other sectors, but, the other departments in the Tertiary Sector play a large part in the success or failure of FAP. Martin Rider has a community web site on the Internet, and does a lot of theatrical work. As the Internet industry is doing very well at the moment, and FAP is hoping to spread all over the UK, communications help a lot to promote this business. The best way to promote the business locally is while shows are going on. The department leisure includes theatre and public events, and locally, FAP is involved with all theatrical work and most public events. Leisure is one of the fastest growing industries in the tertiary sector which gives an indication on how well FAP should be doing. (Appendix 4) FAP can be affected by the secondary sector. The only way that FAP is affected by any other sectors is the fluctuations in manufacturing of electrical goods in the secondary sector. This can cause problems when attempting to purchase specialised equipment for shows or upgrading the current range of products. Conclusion. Although currently small, Freelance Audio Productions is growing very fast as a result of the tertiary sector departments that it is part of. Over the next few years, new contacts with other businesses in the UK will be made, and maybe other sectors will come as a part of the company. The legal status of Lantra is a charitable limited company. Lantra is owned and run by a board of directors. If Lantra goes Ã¢â¬ËbustÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËbankruptÃ¢â¬â¢, each director has a liability of one pound. Lantra has a very complicated range of services. Most of the services is education, training and policy work for the government. Most of the work is in the land based sector, which is to do with farming, agriculture and environmental conservation. Lantra sets the standards that the GNVQs are set upon. The GNVQs for land based studies is set by Lantra. There are three operating Companies which work under the Ã¢â¬ËumbrellaÃ¢â¬â¢ company, Lantra. These are called, Lantra Awards, Lantra National Training Organisation and Lantra Agenda. These are explained in depth in the following text. Lantra Awards. Lantra Awards is a new organisation within the Lantra. The aim of this company is to Ã¢â¬Ëprovide an innovative and responsive awarding serviceÃ¢â¬â¢. Lantra Awards assesses trainees, and if the needed standards are met, appropri ate awards are rewarded to them. The awards given are recognised by the government and can help acquire a job or an apprenticeship. Lantra Agenda. Lantra Agenda training specialises in management training and consultancy services and the co-ordination of work based training. Agenda courses range from increasing personal dynamics and communication effectiveness to waste management and include a range of health, safety and quality assurance courses. Below are some of the services that Lantra Agenda Provide. Although some are training, they are referred to as a product as they are sold to external agencies also. Management training and business consultancy Ã¢â¬â Business development consultancy Ã¢â¬â Benchmarking Ã¢â¬â Management and supervisory training Ã¢â¬â Train the trainer programmes Vocational Programmes Ã¢â¬â National Traineeships Ã¢â¬â Modern Apprenticeships (Skillseekers in Scotland) Ã¢â¬â Approves centre for N/SVQs Ã¢â¬â Assessment and certification in key skills, hazardous operations and safety training and management. Lantra National Training Organisation (Lantra NTO). Lantra NTO has a wide ranging selection of activities which spans from conducting labour market research to supporting local training providers. The key role of Lantra NOT is to link government and industry. There are eleven industry groups that work in Lantra NTO. These are: Ã¢â¬â agricultural crops Ã¢â¬â agricultural livestock Ã¢â¬â production horticulture Ã¢â¬â landscaping Ã¢â¬â environmental conservation Ã¢â¬â game conservation Ã¢â¬â fish farming Ã¢â¬â agricultural and garden machinery Ã¢â¬â fencing Ã¢â¬â floristry Ã¢â¬â professions allied to veterinary science Graph showing the Tertiary sector total. (See Appendix 1) Lantra and connections with the sectors. Lantra is a peculiar organisation as it is based in not only the tertiary sector, but the primary sector also. Lantra is primarily based in the tertiary sector as it deals with training, education, and the selling of a product, retail. Previously, Lantra was a primary sector, land based organisation. As recent trends show, the primary sector is in rapid decline (Appendix 3) so the company had to think up a new idea to save the business. This is when selling training courses as a product and the company Lantra Awards came into play. These two ideas brought Lantra into the Tertiary sector which is an overall higher earning sector (Appendix 1). This would have both increased the companies value and broadened the types of customers. If the Primary sector decreases, Lantra will be injured as the company still relies mainly on the land based agricultural departments. If the need for more farms arrives, this would be perfect for the training aspect of Lantra as the business would rocket. Conclusion. Even though Lantra is in the primary sector, which is decreasing, the departments which are in the tertiary sector provide a safety net and a higher income. I think that Awards and Agenda will take over and NTO will slowly disappear as the need for agricultural based activities is in decline.
Friday, November 8, 2019
buy custom Legalization of Marijuana essay Marijuana is obtained from various parts of the hemp plant-cannabis sativa which include the flowers, the stem and the leaves. In many countries, marijuana is viewed as a very dangerous drug and has therefore been declared illegal. However, illegalization of the drug does not deter people from using (abusing) it. In fact; it is the fourth most commonly used drug in the world after caffeine, cigar, and alcohol. Those who use the drugs have given it names like weed, pot, reefer among other names. The drug has been used as a way of getting euphoria since ancient times. The use of the drug is thought to have started in china at around 2737 B.C before spreading to India, north Africa and then to the rest of the world. From 1850 to 1942, American physicians used to prescribe the drug for conditions like labor pains, nausea and rheumatism. However, in 1930s various ant-narcotics organizations including the U.S. Federal bureau of narcotics started campaigning for its illegalization arguing t hat its use led to narcotics addiction. This led to its eventual illegalization. Despite the fact that it is illegal in many countries, many people continue to abuse the drug. Of late there have been many debates with some organizations arguing for its legalization while others continue to maintain that it should not be legalized (procon.org). Should the drug be legalized? Research has shown that hemp plant which produces marijuana contains a chemical known as Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).According to research, THC, reduces suffering for cancer and AIDs patients in that it increases appetite and reduces nausea. It is also used by glaucoma patients by decreasing pressure within the eye. Multiple sclerosis patients can also use it to reduce neuropathic pain as well as spacity. Research studies have also shown that THC may help to decrease nervous tics and urges by significant levels in patients with Tourette disorder. With all this evidence on its medical use, marijuana ought to be legalized in order to alleviate pain and suffering undergone by the various patients mentioned (The Columbia Encyclopedia) It is true that marijuana exposes its users to fewer health risks than legal drugs like tobacco and alcohol. Health risks from marijuana have been overstated. Research has shown that that many drugs if taken in large quantities (overdose) are likely to lead to death even though they are legal drugs. On the other hand, marijuana has never caused any fatal overdose. The legal drugs contiue to kill many people and yet nobody calls for their prohibition. The table below shows how various drugs have caused deaths in comparison with marijuana. From the table we can conclude that the legal drugs used for medication are more fatal than marijuana. Therefore, the drug ought to be legalized especially for medical use. This will minimize the number of deaths caused by the so called legal drugs (medicalmarijuana.procon.org). DRUG CLASSIFICATION Specific Drugs per Category Primary Suspect of the Death Secondary Suspect (contributing to death) Total Deaths Reported 1/1/97 - 6/30/05 A. MARIJUANA also known as: Cannabis sativa L Marijuana Cannabis Cannabinoids 0 279 279 B. ANTI-EMETICS (used to treat vomiting) Compazine Reglan Marinol Zofran Anzemet Kytril Tigan 196 429 625 C. ANTI-SPASMODICS (used to treat muscle spasms) Baclofen Zanaflex 118 56 174 D. ANTI-PSYCHOTICS (used to treat psychosis) Haldol Lithium Neurontin 1,593 702 2,295 E. OTHER POPULAR DRUGS (used to treat various conditions including ADD, depression, narcolepsy, erectile dysfunction, and pain) Ritalin Wellbutrin Adderall Viagra Vioxx 8,101 492 8,593 F. TOTALS of A-E Number of Drugs in Total Primary Suspect of the Death Secondary Suspect (contributing to death) Total Deaths Reported 1/1/97 - 6/30/05 TOTAL DEATHS FROM MARIJUANA 1 0 279 279 TOTAL DEATHS FROM 17 FDA-APPROVED DRUGS 17 10,008 1,679 11,687 The dangers caused by the use of marijuana are made worse by the fact that it is an illegal drug. The drug is taken in its raw form. Since the drug is illegal, it cannot be processed in order to remove its harmful aspects. Furthermore, its illegalization makes it impossible for the government to enforce quality measures on the drugs products which are manufactured and sold illegally. If the drug was legalized, this would allow for its processing hence ensuring users of quality. Furthermore the manufacturers of the drug would be able to come up with the right prescriptions of the drug .all these efforts would minimize the health dangers posed by the drugs usage. Therefore, there would be fewer incidences of people being addicted by the drug or getting complications owing to its use. As stated earlier, marijuana has a lot of medicinal value. However, its criminalization prevents the government and various pharmaceutical industries to undertake extensive research regarding to its use fo r medicinal value. Research regarding to the use of the drug would result into more effective and safer marijuana medicine. The research would also lead to better recreational marijuana because new drug with the desired effects fo9und in the current marijuana would be created. The marijuana would have fewer health effects (Swlearning.com). Buy custom Legalization of Marijuana essay
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Political Aspects Of Hosting Mega Sporting Management Essay Essay Example Political Aspects Of Hosting Mega Sporting Management Essay Essay Political Aspects Of Hosting Mega Sporting Management Essay Essay This paper aims to foremost, describe and analyze the political facets of hosting mega featuring on two major levels- national and international degrees. On the national degree, mega featuring events are able to further coaction among the populace sector, the private sector and the community. Such events are able to better authorities efficiency and used as a tool for the development of new thoughts such as environmental sustainability, diverseness and community engagement. Furthermore, such events can convey about urban transmutation, civic integrity and AIDSs in the edifice of both a national and a cultural individuality. At a more macro international degree, mega-sporting events can be used as a platform for the publicity of international human rights and societal justness and can function as a tool for the international acknowledgment of provinces. Second, this paper will analyse economic facets of hosting mega featuring event by analyzing the entire commercial activity within the state and by weighing the effects of the building of substructure for the mega clean event. In this section, the impacts of the commercial activity with regard to the touristry industry, the employment rate and foreign direct investings on the host state will be examined. Last, this paper seeks to analyze the success of India in hosting the recent XIX Commonwealth Games 2010. A successful mega-sporting event depends on the host s ability to program and put to death the event so that it is able to accomplish new degrees of planetary acknowledgment every bit good as important economic, political and societal development in the hereafter. Reasons for Hosting Mega Sporting Events Political Agendas In this section of the paper, the political docket for hosting mega-sporting events will be discussed on two distinguishable levels- national and international. National Level Civic Pride and Unity Hosting mega athletics events can take to civic pride[ 1 ]. It plays an of import function in the manner people in the host state view themselves and their community. It allows people in the host state to portion their experiences of life in the state and show values that are close to the bosom of the people populating in the state. The passion and committedness exhibited by these voluntaries will non be able to be matched by salaried workers employed to execute the same responsibilities. Volunteerism allows the people in the state to experience a sense of pride for their state. A society of voluntaries is indispensable to accomplishing the host state s vision of being an exciting planetary finish, which is vivacious, widely distributed, and at the same clip culturally rich and diverse. Hosting mega-sporting events can help the edifice of national individualities in some states such as South Africa by advancing societal integrating and furthering tolerance amongst the people. Sports can cut across barriers that divide the society, as in the instance of South Africa where football was seen to further societal coherence between the Whites and the Blacks. The permanent image of Nelson Mandela showing the Rugby World Cup Trophy to the Afrikaner captain Francois Pienaarin 1995 at the event held in South Africa[ 2 ]illustrates how mega-sporting events can convey intangible benefits such as coherence and integrity. Host states use mega-sporting events as a great chance to show a positive cultural image, successful integrating and traditional values in the international sphere with an purpose of increasing touristry in the hereafter. The most suited occasions to expose traditional activities picturing patriotism, Orientalism and cultural individuality in the games are the gap and shutting ceremonials[ 3 ]. At the 1982 Ninth Asiatic Games, the overall subject of the integrity in diverseness in Indian patriotism and civilization was the spirit of the ceremonials. There were shows of a assortment of terpsichoreans picturing the different provinces in India. ( Give more concrete grounds ) Urban Transformation Mega featuring events are accelerators of significant urban transmutation, peculiarly from passage from industrial metropolis to a post-industrial metropolis due to alterations in the planetary economic system[ 4 ]. States are more dependent on the service and touristry industry instead than the fabrication, local capital investing and public sector intercession due to globalisation, deregulating and deindustrialization of the economic system[ 5 ]. Therefore, more enterprises are being taken by the authorities to develop and better substructures and fast path the already proposed development programs. For illustration, Tokyo used the 1964 Olympic games as an chance to transform the metropolis from a congested, war-damaged pandemonium to a modern, comfortable city. Tokyo spent US $ 2.7 million in 1964 on an urban redevelopment program which included extended route betterments, seaport enlargements and development of urban comfortss, lodging, tourer adjustment and waste and sewerage di sposal systems. Among Tokyo s huge Olympic outgo, it was estimated that less than 3 % of the outgo was spent on the building of strictly competition related installations the bulk was alternatively spent on run intoing the metropolis s short term and long-run development programs[ 6 ]. International Strengthening of Global Image and Positioning Some states host mega featuring events as a tool to joint and signal key messages sing the host- a dynamic that extends beyond the province based chase of public diplomatic negotiations[ 7 ]. These signals are critical tools of legitimization for the host state in deriving support both domestically and internationally. The media and planetary communications have played an of import function in this facet by leting the event to be seen from all over the universe at any existent clip. By hosting mega-sporting events like the Olympics and the Commonwealth Games, the host states are provided with a low cost but high profile resource for publicising their policy on international issues or towards specific provinces. Semi peripheral states use mega-sporting events as a tool to signal developmental progresss. The Olympics held in Beijing in 2008 illustrate how mega featuring events played an highly of import function in International political relations. The Chinese saw the Olympics as less of a clean spectacle and more of a coming out party[ 8 ]. The mega sporting event was used as an chance for China to showcase its economic sciences and political development. In fact, the Prime Minister of the People s Republic of China, Wen Jiabao stated in an interview in April 2008 that the Beijing Olympics present an chance for China to demo the universe how democratic, unfastened, civilised, friendly and harmonious it is[ 9 ]. Hosting mega featuring events are besides used to signal decisive and desirable societal alteration. The 1995 Rugby World Cup in Africa played a important function in accommodating the inkinesss and the White persons in South Africa. In peculiar, it gave the Whites in South Africa an chance to encompass the symbols, leaders and thought of a new, multiracial, democratic state basically to finish the symbolic journey from the old to new South Africa[ 10 ]. Besides, the 2010 Football World Cup held late in South Africa shows the state s re-entry into the international community and its journey from a outcast province to a planetary mediator. Phase for the Promotion of International Human Rights and Social Justice States use mega-sporting events as a phase to advance international human right issues. This is particularly apparent during the Beijing Olympic Games in 2008 when widespread protest and increased media attending showed how human rights issues were violated by the Chinese authorities. In the 1968 Mexico games, there were protest and menaces of boycotts against the apartheid government in South Africa. South Africa was besides banned from take parting in the games. The ejections of South Africa from the Games lead to international force per unit area of the anti-apartheid motion and athleticss countenances to be imposed on the state until the eventual autumn of the apartheid government. The mega sporting event was successful in the continued enforcement of South African countenances, keeping the anti-apartheid motion[ 11 ]. The clean event played an of import function in bring forthing international consciousness for the apartheid government against South Africa and besides helped bri ng on political and societal alteration within the state. Economic Consequences in the hosting of Mega Sporting Events In this section of the paper, the economic docket of hosting mega featuring events will be discussed in elaborate with regard to the entire commercial activity and the usage of the public financess for the edifice of substructures for the mega clean event. Entire Commercial Activity Tourism Industry The touristry industry will profit with the increasing media coverage given in concurrence with the hosting of such mega featuring event. Conservative surveies estimate addition in station Games tourists to be from 1.5 % to 3 % for the last Olympic Games in 2008[ 12 ]. This addition in the figure of station Games tourer is due to the media coverage of hosting such event. Viewing audiences of the mega sporting event are more likely to develop an involvement in sing the host state, which may take to a greater desire to see the state in the hereafter. The mega clean event gives the host state an chance to showcase itself to the universe as a prima metropolis for athleticss and a perfect locale for events every bit good as an attractive force worthy topographic point of repeated visits. On the other manus, a possible downside to hosting the event is the negative outwardnesss such a congestion may deter regular non-interested visitants from sing the metropolis during the event[ 13 ]. This will take to a autumn in the figure of people sing the state. Besides, if local eating houses and hotels are at full capacity, the event may merely replace instead than supplement the regular touristry industry[ 14 ]. For illustration, in the 2002 World cup held in South Korea, there was an addition in the figure of European visitants to the state but this was offset by a similar lessening in the figure of regular tourers and concern travellers from Japan who chose to avoid the fusss.[ 15 ]There were no alteration in the entire figure of foreign visitants sing the state and the figure was dead at 460 000. This shows a contradiction to the belief that mega featuring events pull big figure of visitants to the host state. Employment Rate Mega featuring events can ensue in an addition in the employment rate of the state. New occupations are created in assorted facets of the featuring event runing from conveyance to building industry. For illustration, it was predicted that the Olympic games held in Atlanta and Sydney would bring forth every bit many as 77 000 and 100 000 new occupations severally. However, states need to be cautioned to hold labour militias so as to avoid the hazard of destructing the economic system. It may turn out risky for little economic systems holding full employment rates to host mega featuring events as it can take to the job of rising prices and this will in bend cause the economic system to deteriorate. Foreign Direct Investments Hosting mega-sporting events can pull foreign direct investings in both the private and public sector from transnational companies. Many transnational corporations are attracted to states with sophisticated substructure with a safe and pleasant ambiance. These foreign direct investings will profit the host state in footings of productive factors such as marketing know-how, preparation installations and technological expertness. The host state will besides profit from the spill over effects such as labour preparation, upgrading of production accomplishments and motive of local constituent providers, stimulation to competition and development of managerial accomplishments and cognition about the foreign markets[ 16 ]. All these accomplishments will work together to increase the fight of the host metropolis. The consequence of the building of substructure Mega Sporting Events requires the host state to put big amounts of money in the building of featuring spheres, which may be used by the authorities otherwise to better wellness attention installations and the instruction system. For the 2002 Fifa World Cup, South Korea invested an estimated $ 2 billion dollars in the building of 10 new bowls and Japan spent $ 4 billion dollars in constructing seven new bowls and renovating three bing 1s[ 17 ]. The extent to which these installations and substructures are used in the hereafter is highly of import, as the demand is likely to diminish well after the mega-sporting event and there is a inclination for these substructures to go white elephants . For illustration, after the 2002 World Cup, merely five out of the 10 new bowls had regular renters. Besides, immense sum of money is invested in keeping the substructures. Therefore, it is necessary for the host state to weigh its benefits and cost before make up ones minding to host the mega cl ean event. An Analysis: The XIX Commonwealth Games 2010 Having described the grounds for states to host mega featuring events, it is now imperative that these grounds be analyzed in the context of the XIX Commonwealth Games 2010 ( CWG ) held late in India. In its command for the Commonwealth Games, Delhi s purpose was chiefly to excite economic growing and development and at the same clip better the metropolis s substructure[ 18 ]. In this section of the paper, the success of the Games will be assessed on whether the purposes of the host state have been fulfilled based on the undermentioned variables: Making a Permanent Bequest Focus on Post Event Legacy Strategy Alignment It is indispensable for states hosting mega-sporting events to implement enterprises that leave a long term sustainable benefit tailored for the Games. In this facet, one of vision of the CWG forming commission was a clear green vision to endeavor towards cut downing C footmark and going the sustainable development benchmark for multi-disciplinary games in the hereafter [ 19 ]. They implemented many strategic enterprises such as edifice Green infrastructures, holding Green ceremonials and cordial reception and at the same clip initiated a assortment of green procurance policies to make consciousness of the environmental debasement and advance environmental motions. A green concerts were held to bring forth public involvement in the Games, sensitise them about the Green Games subject and at the same clip to bring on the populace to back up its Low Carbon Campaign . The populace was encouraged to take pledges to protect the environment and badges advancing GO GREEN, IT WORKS! were distributed to promote the people to make their portion in caring for the environment[ 20 ]. Social Development Ideally, a successful mega featuring event is one that provides benefits economic, political and societal to a assortment of stakeholders. However, this was nt the instance in the Commonwealth Games. It was reported that kids of over 400,000 building workers at the Games sites are deprived of basic rights like sanitation, schooling and health care[ 21 ]. It is of import that these kids are given their constitutional rights by the authorities in their effort to supply first substructure for the Commonwealth games. Many of the hapless are marginalized as a consequence of the CWG because slums near the Yamuna part where the site of the CWG is at have been demolished. It is estimated that 30 000 to 40 000 households will be displaced by the authorities as a consequence of the CWG[ 22 ]. Infrastructure In order for a mega featuring event to be successful, it is of import that the event fits into the metropolis s development end. A bequest of abandoned substructure and economic ruins tarnishes the image of the host state. In the facet, the Commonwealth Games will profit the people in India to a big extent in the hereafter. Delhi went through a monolithic transmutation with the edifice of a new airdrome terminus, building of more tube paths and the add-on of new coachs to ease the conveyance system within the metropolis for both the locals and tourers. In add-on, new overpass and subwaies was besides built at an estimated cost of RS. 1650 Crores to work out the traffic congestion jobs that the state presently face. However, there is a concern that there will be an underutilization of the sporting substructure station event. Many of the bowls will be vacant and it will be particularly hard to derive entree to the bowl since many of it is authorities owned. Constructing a wide base of Support Hosting a successful mega-sporting event requires the state to hold strong: Common Goal It is of import for the general populace, concern organisations and the authorities to supply a individual voice and a common end for the state so that the best of the state can be presented to a planetary audience. India s determination to offer for the Commonwealth Games was non-transparent and undemocratic[ 23 ]. The CWG was used as an effort by the authorities to inspire an elect goaded plan of urban transmutation that focuses on denationalization, secularisation and buildings of memorials to amour propre. It is dissatisfactory how India s effort to derive national prestigiousness undermined the urban societal motions in India. Government Support Fiscal Guarantees The authorities demand to be a surety for fiscal duties and liabilities related to the event for the mega-sporting event to be successful. The authorities has to do usage of their resources sagely to efficaciously do the event successful due to the immense sum of money involved. In this facet, the Commonwealth Games 2010 can be deemed as a complete failure. First, the authorities did non do usage of their resources expeditiously. The authorities for the mega sporting event used 1000000s of dollars, which were irrelevant to the common adult male in India alternatively of utilizing it for societal development plans and bettering the instruction and healthcare systems in the state. It is of import for the authorities to maintain in head that the money invested in such events comes from public financess and the event should so profit the populace it derives capital from, non curtailing itself to the elite rich minority, while at the same time guaranting that it does no injury to the community[ 24 ]. Second, there were widespread corruptness in assorted facets of forming the event including the procurance and awarding of contracts for the building of the games venue. For illustration, the Commonwealth Games forming commission after probe of fiscal abnormalities charged TS Darbari and deputy manager general Sanjay Mahendroo. Security The authorities needs to play a critical function in maintaining the people safe and the occupation of acquiring the jocks, support staff and protagonists in and out of the state with optimum security. . Mega featuring events, due to their turning visibleness and importance, have become a major mark for terrorists and other riotous forces. Security inquiries emerged after gunslingers who fired on a tourer coach in New Delhi two hebdomads before the games injured two visitants from Taiwan[ 25 ]. The Indian authorities have invested around 370 Crores on security[ 26 ]. The Indian Government liaised with assorted cardinal security bureaus within India and all predicating states in the mega event to increase the degree of security. Particular monitoring security with the electronic surveillance like CCTV, X-Ray luggage scanner was besides placed on the relevant places to look into out the perturbation and problem. The authorities should be applauded for their efforts in undertaking this security issues. Economic Development Tourism Rate There have been a dip in the umber of tourer sing the metropolis due to hapless selling by the Tourism Department and the CWG Organizers and due to negative media coverage environing the Commonwealth Games along with Dengue and inundations menace. The authorities had estimated that one million tourers would get at the CWG but merely 75606 tourers turned up. This caused an inauspicious impact on the hotel and service industry. Employment Rate The employment rate have increased in turn in the development and edifice of substructure in Delhi in readying for the CWG. The edifice of the CWG substructure has involved a great figure of contractors, building companies and day-to-day pay earners. Even after the CWG, occupations are still secured due to the direction and care of the substructure, in peculiar the athletics locales and bowls. The CWG has helped in increasing our employment rate by 1.1 million and this will stay even after the Games[ 27 ]. Economic Growth and Foreign Direct Investments On this facet, it is excessively shortly to reason if India have gained or loosed because it has merely been one month since the CWG. However, it can be concluded that Delhi will profit. Delhi has a presence of good connectivity, which allows the metropolis to be linked with other economically vivacious metropoliss in the state. There is a high literacy rate within the population and many of them are extremely entrepreneurial. Due to good connectivity, the metropolis has the possible to pull private developers and foreign direct investings in the lodging and substructure sectors Decision The Commonwealth Games was non much a failure as many critics have said it to be. The Games went swimmingly and the state was able to profit from the substructures built such as the enhanced conveyance system and the occupations created. However, there were many other facets that were non as successful- there was corruptness charges against some members of the authorities and there was a deficiency of societal development in the state. Besides, the state was unable to cast the underdeveloped state label due to many controversial issues that arose before and during the Games.