Sunday, March 15, 2020

Knowing Your Audience When Choosing a Magazine Topic

Knowing Your Audience When Choosing a Magazine Topic There are as many magazines as there are special interests and nowhere is this more evident than the magazine racks of your local major bookseller. You can find magazines about gardens, magazines about guns, magazines about guns and gardens, and just about everything in between. So if youre a freelance writer, how do you get your foot in the door of an industry with such a wide variety of published topics and actually make good money at it?The answer is simple: find an audience you know well and write for them.Knowing your audience is one of the top qualifications for writing for a particular magazine- right up there with being a decent writer. If you know the audience, everything concerning voice, tone and content will fall into place naturally for you.Below are the primary considerations you should make when choosing the audience for which you want to write, and the concepts you should keep in mind when choosing a topic, tone and writing style for that audience.DemographicsDemograp hics play a major role in many magazines success or failure. Without the right demographics in a publications readership, the magazine risks failure from the onset. Thats why marketers for the magazines advertising sales will be focusing on demographics before the magazines first issue even goes to print.Demographics concentrate on the age, location, marital status, income level, education level and even racial profile of the magazines readership. With ads targeting a particular demographic (for example, college-educated, professional, single African American women), the magazine can ensure that those ads reach the right audience through careful attention to content that will attract that demographics interest. Editors are less likely to accept content that might not appeal to the magazines readership for this reason alone- its truly all about money and it has to be. Without the ad sales to companies wishing to target a particular demographic, most magazines cant stay afloat financi ally. Its all a simple matter of numbers and audience appeal, regardless of how riveting your content might be.TrendsFocusing on trends within a particular demographic is a great way to determine the type of content the editor of a magazine would be most likely to accept and approve for publication. One easy way to do this is to find a magazine that contains ads and content focused on your own demographic, whatever that might be. No one is better aware of demographic trends than a person within that demographic, because you know what interests you and your friends. You know what your demographic is doing, talking about, tweeting about, posting about or passing time with on a day-to-day basis. That knowledge gives you the unique qualification of writing for your own demographic effortlessly.For this reason, many freelancers begin their search for publishing venues by querying the magazines they read, themselves. This puts you in a unique place of knowing the content and knowing the a udience well, since you have been reading the magazine for some time and are familiar with the type of articles they tend to run.However, the downside to this is that focusing on a magazine with a large, established readership makes querying more difficult. Such magazine editors receive hundreds of queries per day and yours will inevitably end up at the bottom of a line of emails or a stack of mail that might not be answered quickly. A delay like that is enough to put the damper on any freelance writers dream of being published in a magazine, which brings us to the third point†¦Size mattersIf you take a moment to look at the magazines provided for free at local restaurants or grocery stores, youre likely to find a few upstart regional magazines that have a broader demographic readership base and are more willing to answer your query quickly. These smaller publications often pay freelancers a reasonable rate, although it might not be quite as high as the larger publications pay. If you are seeking a way to get published often and build a portfolio, however, the smaller publications are just the ticket. The editors running them are often more willing to hire local and a few feature assignments could easily turn into a steady gig writing a regular column or section for these types of magazines. The demographic focus is almost always broad (an audience within your region), so you already know what that audience wants to read.This should in no way keep you from querying the big guys. Youll still have the opportunity to focus on your dream of being published in a national or international publication, even if youre writing more for a small, regional one. In fact, if you go this route, youll have a lot more publishing credit under your belt when querying the larger magazines and a lot more experience with the process, allowing you to fine-tune your skills and eventually get published in the magazines you prefer.Grow with your audienceThe most significant factor y oull discover about choosing the right audience is that as a freelance writer, youll tend to grow with your audience if you focus on the right things. If there is a particular topic that your expertise particularly shines in, keep writing about that topic and submitting your writing to magazines, even the smaller, regional ones. If no magazine wants the article, start a blog and place those articles there, allowing it to be a sort of personal interest portfolio space for you that shows your most quality writing. Youll find that time spent writing those pieces is not wasted, regardless of where it is published, and you will start to gather a growing audience that is also interested in that niche topic- even if its through a blog. This same audience will be anxious to read anything you write and isnt that the point of writing in the first place?

Friday, February 28, 2020

Possible Reform Measures to the Stafford Act to Make It More Essay

Possible Reform Measures to the Stafford Act to Make It More Functional in Todays Society - Essay Example The Stafford Act was meant to agitate states and local authorities to develop a comprehensive disaster preparedness protocols and plans. These were meant to enable and facilitate better intergovernmental coordination in the event of a disaster (Farber & Chen, 2006). The act stipulated that both public and private entities be encouraged to seek insurance cover to help them absorb losses incurred due to the destruction of property and assets in these calamities. The act also recommends federal assistance programs and interventions for losses due to a disaster(Farber & Chen, 2006). The Stafford Act was able to instigate the creation of a system through which a president could declare a disaster emergency. This declaration triggers financial and physical interventions through the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Through FEMA, the Act gives the agency the power and responsibility of coordinating government sanctioned relief efforts(Farber & Chen, 2006). The New Orleans disaster was caused by Hurricane Katrina that was characterized by massive flooding, which led to the destruction of property and loss of life. According to Title I of the Stafford Act, the federal government can only intervene after an occurrence has been determined to be a disaster by the president(Farber & Chen, 2006). This is a major weakness to the Act because the people of New Orleans suffered a great deal before the then president declared hurricane Katrina as a disaster.  Under the Act, the federal government can shoulder the burden of financing local authority’s obligations if the damage caused by the disaster was to such an extent that the local government can not function. FEMA is tasked with the responsibility of assessing the situation of the affected area and formulating measures that alleviate the negative impact of the disaster. FEMA officials are federal employees, and they are mostly not in touch with the immediate needs of the locals in af fected areas.  

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

Project Governance Research Proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Project Governance - Research Proposal Example The role of the stakeholders lies in the government department who are largely required to implement strategies to manage time, effort and money to be incurred for the project. The purpose of this analysis is to locate all the key influential people who are directly responsible for managing the project and has a hand in project duration and monetary determination. The various responsibilities enable better functioning of the project and make sure that all the formalities of project resource delegation and allocation is handled. This information is prepared for keeping a knowledge document for every type of resource and people enforcing the requirement analysis of the project. It stands very essential to manage the project members and determine all parties who influence decision making to complete the project with the assigned resources (Paul, 2007). Paul, G (2007). "Stakeholder Management Sheet". Retrieved 31, January 2009 from http://www.businet.org.uk/public/conferenceDocs/Riga2007/Businet%20Conference%202007,%20Stakeholder%20Management%20Sheet%20(template).ppt.

Friday, January 31, 2020

Two radio and two television genres Essay Example for Free

Two radio and two television genres Essay In at least one point in the day, every-one finds themselves tuned into one broadcast station or another, be it radio or television Be it for entertainment, relaxation, to be informed or merely a means of escapism. For whichever reasons it is, radio and television play an active role in our everyday life whether we are aware of it or not. Using South African examples, this assignment seeks to discuss two radio and two television genres. It is virtually impossible to discuss the issue genre before defining this term. Both the Oxford dictionary as well as Creeber (2001), defines genre as type or kind. Genres allow for the types or kinds of things to be categorised. For example in radio broadcasting, there are various different programs aired, such as talk shows, music shows, news broadcasts, drama shows and so on. Each of these shows are categorised into a particular genre based on their characteristics. The two radio genres that will be discussed are talk shows and music shows. The phenomenon of genre is not exclusive to radio and television alone. In fact according to Greeber, it [genre] has played an important role in the study of literature, theatre, film, television and other art and media forms (Creeber, G: 2001 pg.1). Radio-Talk Genre Radio stations like SAFM and 702 are almost entirely dedicated to the genre of talk show however almost every radio station incorporates this genre if not at least for a few minutes. The success of talk shows lie in participation by the audience. The audience is urged to call into the radio station and either view their opinion on the topic of discussion or pose questions to either an officiator or a panel. On SAFM for example, there was a program entitled The Life and Times of Dr. Bayers Nordea. The show was as the title implies, discussing and talking about Dr. Nordeas life. The show hosted family, colleagues and friends, who spoke about his life. Listeners also got the opportunity to add their comments, thoughts, as well as pose questions to the panel. The show was also officiated by the host or disk jockey (D.J) of the show, who not only directed most of the discussion, but also made sure that the show, ran smoothly. The nature of talk shows is such that the audience phones in either agreeing or disagreeing to the topic or question being discussed. This opens the door for others to voice their opinions. According to Barnard (2000), phone-in encourages a free flow of opinion and conversation within the safety of an artificially created community (Barnard, S: 2000). With out this element, the talk show would be deemed unsuccessful. Talk shows do not follow a particular protocol, meaning that any topic can be addressed. The mere action of a D.J. posing a question relating to any topic and receiving feedback from the audience constitutes the genre of talk show to be exercised. As any topic makes way for talk shows, it is common to find small inserts of talk show, even within a primarily music radio station. Highfeld Stereo is an example of a South African music radio station. It is common to find a situation where a D.J. poses a question and opens the lines to receive feedback. The D.J is thus officiating a talk show, within a music show. Listeners of talk shows however, are required to concentrate on the discussion if they are to understand what is being discussed, thus ones attention cannot divert from one thing to another. For example, one cannot talk to a friend on the phone, as well as remain focused on the discussion. Radio-Music Genre Although there is audience participation in the music genre, it differs from that of the talk genre. Regarding music radio, the audience is urged to call in to send dedications to friends or loved ones, choose songs they wish to hear, or vote for their favourite song rather than voice their opinions on a matter. Music as a genre is not so clear-cut like talk shows. Within the music genres, there are sub-genres, where by music is categorised according to style. Rock, rave, hip-hop and pop would all be examples of sub-genres of the music genre. The music genre requires less attention from the listener to be focused on the show. Namely, the listener can do various other activities without loosing out on the entertainment. For example, while driving a car and focusing on the road, or while working at ones desk, one can continue to listen to his or her favourite song and not be side tracked. Unlike the talk genre where if one was driving a car and focusing on the road they would more than likely loose track of what was being discussed-alternatively, they would possibly have an accident. As the genre implies, the emphasis in music shows is in fact music. Therefore it is common to find very little talking by the D.J. and more music being played. The show usually consists of popular songs in the specific sub-genre being aired. This genre also usually has a top 40 show, where the 40 most popular songs are aired. This is commonly known as contempory hit radio (Tomaselli/de Villiers: 1998). 5FM radio station for example has the Coca-Cola Top 40 music show which is aired every Sunday morning from 10:00- 14:00. Other radio stations like East Coast Radio host the Top 10 at 10 show, which airs the 10 most popular songs every Tuesday night at 22:00. These songs which make it onto the top 10 or top 40 lists, are songs which have been voted for by the public. Jacaranda FM in contrast to the mainstream radio stations of say 5FM for example would air music of a different sub-genre, however one would still find the most popular tracks of that specific sub-genre being aired, as well as top 10 shows occurring. In the music genre, the D.Js primary job is to play music and possible talk a little bit about the artist of the track, rather than being an officiator or a mediator of discussion, as is found in talk radio. Television-Documentary Genre As the term documentary implies, these shows are usually fact based and require research to be done on the particular topic being showed. Events are documented by a team of researchers and aired to the public. An example of a documentary would be found in the SABC 2 show 50/50. This is a documentary program that focuses on various aspects of the wild life. Documentaries however could focus on a variety of topics, including an event, person or idea. As the emphasis of documentaries is on information, enlightenment and facts, viewers usually watch documentaries as a means of being informed, rather than being entertained. The nature of documentaries is such that each episode is fully formed and has a definite conclusion even if left as an enquiry for the viewer to think about what they have just viewed. This allows the viewer to evaluate their knowledge of the topic against that of the show. Documentaries are also not usually serial form, as would be the case in a sitcom for example. Rather, they tend to be self-contained episodes with definite endings. Documentaries usually also adopt a narrative structure psychological relationship of the viewers to the program. The viewer is often addressed directly, in order to persuade the actual person watching at home that he or she is the you to whom the addresser is speaking (Allen,C: 1992 pg. 118). This also keeps the viewer interested in the show as well making them feel as if they actively involved in what is going on. Due to the fact that documentaries are not entertainment focused and are rather a means of transferring information, events, people or animals being documented are portrayed as realistically as possible. Animals, which are filmed in the 50/50 program, for example are filmed in their natural environments, rather than in zoos, in order to give the viewer the most realistic experience. As they are based on real occurrences, documentaries, unlike entertainment programmes such as sitcoms, do not focus as much on a specific plot. Television-Soap Opera As soap operas were originally targeted at the female audience (Brown, M: 1994), it is not surprising to find that many of the central characters within this genre are women. More importantly, they are strong, powerful and influential characters, rather than the stereotype housewife women. SABC 3 airs the soap opera Isidingo. Charel de Villiers and Leigh Haynes are two examples of strong, powerful and ambitious characters that play central roles in the show. It is important for these kinds of characters to exist, in order for the audience to which the show is targeted at to be able to relate. They [women] recognise some of there own identity in this product created by the media (Brown, M: 1994). People watch soap operas for a number of reasons. The fact that they are entertaining, allows the viewer to unwind, relax or escape from the stresses from every day life, for the duration of the show, as the audience get lost in the reality of the program (Anderson, M: 2004). Viewers could also be using the decision-making techniques and outcomes of the soap opera to work through their own issues (Anderson, M: 2004). Isidingo is an example of a program that deals with AIDS-an issue that the whole of South Africa is facing; it also provides solutions in the form of Nandipe-a married women infected with HIV. Her positive attitude allows her to live a productive life. Viewers may see Nandipe as a role model. Those viewers infected with HIV may in fact even echo her actions in order to try and increase productivity in their own lives. Characters in soap operas are usually found in the form of multiple characters (Brown, M: 1994) meaning that characters emphasize the group over the individual (Brown, M: 1994 pg 53), thus many people can relate to one specific character. This also makes way for viewers to find similarities between themselves and various other characters rather than one particular character. Brown believes that rather than relating to characters in soap operas, viewers implicate themselves to various characters, meaning that the viewer will see similarities between a particular character, or even characters, but when the character acts in a way that the viewer does not agree with, or feel comfortable with, the viewer will distance him or herself from the character (Brown, M: 1994). Soap operas adopt a visualization style, which gets the viewer to focus and identify with a specific character (Brown, M: 1994 pg. 53). On a radio talk show for example, a TV viewer called in with the opinion that the Isidingo villianess, Cherel de Villiers should be punished, as if the viewer could not differentiate between reality fiction. (Anderson, M: 2004). Apparently actors who play villainous characters are shunned offset by the public (Anderson, M: 2004). It is not only the relatable characters and entertaining style of soap operas that keep the audience hooked. It is also the continuous open-ended nature of episodes, set in the present and containing a number of alternating story lines which gives the audience sense of continuous pleasure (Brown, M: 1994, pg. 58). The fact that soap operas resists narrative closure, meaning that the story is continuous and never ending, means there is always hope for the future (Anderson, M: 2004). Thus viewers will continue to watch future episodes in order to come closer to seeing what will happen at the end (which never really comes). John Davies (1984)suggests about soap opera viewers that once hooked, they vacillate between their need to know, or the pleasure of anticipation that keeps viewers watching (Brown, M: 1994). In discussing two radio and two television genres with reference to two South African examples, it is evident that the complexities and intricacies of various broadcasts and genres are not as simple as one would imagine. As seen above, various genres and broadcasts draw in different audiences, and evoke various different responses in the viewer or listener. As technology continues to move forward, where will these broadcasts find themselves in the future? For now though, radio and television will continue to play an active part in almost all of our lives. BIBLIOGRAPHY Allen, Robert C. 1992. Televisions modes of address the social context of T.V. viewing. In Channels of Discourse, reassembled. 2nd ed. Edited by Robert C. Allen. London: Routledge. Anderson, Muff. Soapies mirror SAs soul. Mail Guardian. 24 March 2004. Barnard, S. 2000. Studying Radio. New York: Arnold Hodder. Brown, Mary Ellen. 1994.Ch. 3: Soap opera and womens talk: The pleasure of resistance. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Creeber, G. (ed.). 2001. Introduction: What is genre? In Creeber, G (ed),The television genre book. London: British Film Institute, 1-7. Teer-Tomaselli, R and de Villiers, C. 1998. Radio: Theatre of the Mind. In De Beer, A (ed). Mass media toward the Millennium. Pretoria: Van Schaik, 147-175.

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Literary elements used by poe :: essays research papers

Literary Elements in Poe’s Writing   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In the writings of great authors it is easy to pick out the literary elements used by them. Edgar Allan Poe is one of these authors. He makes use of the same literary elements in many of his stories. Three of the most used literary elements are irony, antagonists and foreshadowing.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Irony is used very often by Poe. Irony is when something occurs that is the exact opposite of how it should be or seem. Irony varies in that it may be displayed through someone’s actions or an ironic happening. An example of irony in someone’s action are in the Cask of Amontillado is when Montressor repeatedly seems concerned for Fortunato’s health, even though his real intentions are to kill him. It also may be considered ironic that Poe named the enemy of Monstressor, Fortunato. Being that Fortunato means fortunate or lucky in Italian, it is ironic that he is very unlucky in that he his buried alive in a wall.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Antagonist is also a literary element used by Poe is this story. We see how Forunato so ignorantly and thoughtlessly antagonized the questionably insane Montressor. The consequence for this antagonist was death by dehydration and starvation.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  One of the most common literary elements used by Poe throughout many of his works is foreshadowing. Poe loved foreshadowing what is to come as much as he can. We see him often use little things to foreshadow. Such as, the infamous raven, or the dichromatic beating of the heart within a dead man buried in the floor. In the Cask of Amontillado, we see foreshadowing in the speech of Monstressor and Fortunato. When Fortunato states, â€Å"I shall not die of a mere cough†, Monstressor enthusiastically agrees with him.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

The Scarlet Letter essay: Why was Dimmesdale’s Suffering Worse Than Hester’s?

In Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter, Mr. Dimmesdale’s greatest secret is his sin of adultery with Hester Prynne. Mr. Dimmesdale feared that his soul could not bear the shame of such a disclosure because of his status as an important moral figure in society. As a result, he keeps his identity a secret as Hester is publicly ridiculed for their act of adultery. Despite his choice of guilt over shame, Mr.Dimmesdale’s private self-inflicted inner turmoil that is exacerbated by the tortures of Roger Chillingworth, ate away at his physical being and mental state, causing much greater suffering than Hester’s public shame of the scarlet letter. Much of the suffering, physical and mental, that Arthur Dimmesdale endures is self-inflicted due to the immense weight of his guilty conscience. Fearing that he would not be able to bear the punishment from the public, he chose to remain anonymous in his sins. In doing so, he underestimated the amount of psychologica l torture and suffering he would endure by his own hand.By only confessing to himself, he does not fulfill the requirements of repentance, for there is no one to forgive him but himself. He does not allow his conscience to be cleansed, and therefore must live with his sins. His emotional pain leads him to inflict pain with a â€Å"bloody scourge†, which he had often â€Å"plied on his own shoulders†(99). He inflicts great physical pain in addition to his mental torture. In the early Christian church, self-flagellation was imposed as a means of penance and purification for disobedient clergy and laity.In the bible, Proverbs relates that blows â€Å"cleanse away evil† and stripes wash the heart (Prov 20:30). He is trying to redeem and cleanse himself without confession, but this is impossible. Through this self-mutilation, he attempts to relieve his mental pain by inflicting self pain; he find this unsatisfying because he still neglects to partake in the most impo rtant aspect of redemption, confession. He also rigorously fasts, as another attempt to cleanse his soul. Hawthorne writes, â€Å"it was his custom, too, as it has been that of many other pious Puritans, to fast, – not, however, like them†¦Ã‚  but rigorously, and until his knees trembled beneath him, as an act of penance†(99).Religiously, fasting is commonly used as a form of purification and focus on spirituality. Once again, he uses bodily pain as an attempt to relieve his mental suffering. By participating in this unsuccessful cleansing, he only subjects himself to greater psychological torture; what he studied and knew to be a cure of guilt and sin only amplifies his own. The situation becomes hopeless when his ways fail him, and this eats away at his religious beliefs, which are the basis of his entire life.He faces an entire identity crisis, and this is something Hester never had to endure. Yes, she withstood her own share of loneliness and suffering, but ne ver to the extreme where she turned to self-mutilation to relieve herself. He attempts to redeem his tarnished soul through various acts of contrition, but all is in vain because it is all done without a confession. His torture is all within himself; he is his own shunning, gossiping townspeople and his own rock-flinging children. There is nowhere for him to hide.He is fully absorbed by his sins and they eat away at him. Hester, who’s publicly tortured by others while in town, though it might be equally as hurtful at that time, is still lesser than Dimmesdale’s suufering. Hester has an escape route. She has the refuge of her home outside of town, where she can get away from the gossip and scorn. She also publicly embraces her accountability in the affair, which allows her to accept the punishment, move on, and make something good out of it. Hester becomes a maternal figure for the community as a result of her experiences.She cares for the poor and brings them food and clothing. By the end of the novel, the shame of the scarlet letter is long gone. She doesn’t owe anything to the townspeople anymore. Some even forget what the scarlet A stands for. Dimmesdale, on the other hand, as a well-respected minister, stands at the center of his community, being the advocate of religious and moral standards of that Puritan society. He must remain in town, outwardly preaching to others about piety and remaining sinless, and internally feeling like an imposter.Dimmesdale realizes his fault in hiding his sin, but his desire to repent is repeatedly overcome by his craving for public approval. He is their moral compass, yet he himself is lost. This drives Dimmesdale to further internalize his guilt and self-punishment and leads to still more deterioration in his physical and spiritual condition. Because of Dimmesdale’s decision to remain anonymous, he unconsciously creates a duality in personality within himself that results in the deterioration of his mental well-being.Dimmesdale, as the revered town minister, must keep up this dichotomy in personality; he is constantly praised for his goodness and asked for moral and spiritual advice, while he is tumultuous inside. Hester is free to be whom she pleases. The townspeople do not believe Dimmesdale’s protestations of sinfulness. Given his background and his fondness for rhetorical speech, Dimmesdale’s congregation generally interprets his sermons metaphorically rather than as expressions of any personal guilt.He plays the literal meaning of his words off against the context in which he speaks them. Dimmesdale's tone of voice, his position as minister, his reputation as a saintly man, and the genre of the sermon allow him to say, â€Å"I am the greatest sinner among you,† but be understood to be humble, pious, and godly. His inner self is desperately trying to confess, but his self concerned with public appearance only allows him to do it in a way that he won t be taken literally. He is essentially at war with himself.By remaining secret, Dimmesdale doomed himself to much greater suffering than if he were to be publicly condemned with Hester because he subjected himself to years of self-torture and an unyielding quest for unobtainable repentance. The role of Roger Chillingsworth in Dimmesdale’s torture amplifies the pain of the sin, causing much greater suffering than Hester who only interacted with the doctor on sparse occasions. As his name suggests, Roger Chillingworth is a man deficient of human warmth. His twisted, stooped, deformed shoulders mirror his distorted soul.Under the guise of a new doctor in town with wholesome intentions towards the young minister and his health, Chillingsworth gains his trust and they move in together forming very peculiar codependent relationship. Chillingworth needs Dimmesdale to nourish his intellect and to be the object of his obsessive desire that he can control and ultimately destroy; Dimme sdale needs Chillingworth to keep his guilt alive, the constant provoking from the doctor for Dimmesdale to reveal his inner sin forces Dimmesdale to be constantly reminded of his transgressions. Chillingworth is like a leech. He sucks Mr.Dimmesdale’s life force out of sick need for reparation for Dimmesdale’s actions against him. Dimmesdale is subconsciously aware of his dependence of Chillingworth, for he cannot and does not break away. Their relationship is described in this quote, â€Å"Nevertheless, time went on; a kind of intimacy, as we have said, grew up between these two cultivated minds, which had as wide a field as the whole sphere of human thought and study to meet upon; they discussed every topic of ethics and religion, of public affairs, and private character; they talked much, on both sides, of matters that seemed personal to themselves..â€Å"(P#). Chillingworth lived and thrived off the pain and guilt he constantly inflicted on Dimmesdale, and in a t wisted way Dimmesdale relied on this psychological torture to further his self-inflicted search for forgiveness. The role of Roger Chillingsworth in Dimmesdale’s torture intensifies Dimmesdale’s suffering, causing Dimmesdale to endure vastly more than Hester who was able to avoid the evil doctor. Some argue that it was Hester who suffered the most throughout the novel. They say that because of her crime Hester became secluded from the other people in her society.They exemplify this with the quote, â€Å"Who had been familiarly acquainted with Hester Prynne, were now impress as if they beheld her for the first time was the Scarlet Letter, so fantastically embroidered and illuminated upon her bosom. It had the effect of a spell taking her out of the ordinary relations with humanity and enclosing her in a sphere by herself. â€Å"(61). She became lonely, and the scarlet letter was a burden that Hester had to carry everyday of her life, and the symbol, which secluded her from any other human being.It caused Hester to be ostracized, but Dimmesdale's cowardice in not confessing lead ultimately, to his death. Hester had a horrible punishment: she had to wear a scarlet letter for the rest of her life. But Dimmesdale's internal struggle with his own cowardice and guilt was far worse than a scarlet letter. He suffered the most as he constantly punished himself for his sin. Although Hester suffered the public punishment she dealt with it well and took it in stride, ultimately creating a positive role for herself in the community and transforming the meaning of the scarlet letter.She was able to make amends and in time through good deeds, change the meaning of the scarlet letter from â€Å"adulteress† to â€Å"able†. Dimmesdale on the other hand, has to always bear their sin inside of him never allowing it to become public. He was never given the opportunity to make peace with himself. Instead of taking his penance publicly he does it private ly. He was forced to continue to bear his private shame, while Hester was able to make peace with herself because she was strong enough to take her punishment, and grow despite of it.Suffering is commonly seen as an unconscious effort to ease painful feelings of guilt. Arthur Dimmesdale's choice of guilt over shame led him to experience a great deal of physical and emotional suffering. Hester admitted to her sin and had a clear conscience, which allowed her to move on with her life and grow as a person. Mr. Dimmesdale’s choice of anonymity in not confessing his wrongdoing to the public, led to his suffering through the guilt of his sin, a pain that was only aggravated by the tortures of Roger Chillingworth, and ultimately resulted in his painful and tragic death. The Scarlet Letter essay: Why was Dimmesdale’s Suffering Worse Than Hester’s? In Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter, Mr. Dimmesdale’s greatest secret is his sin of adultery with Hester Prynne. Mr. Dimmesdale feared that his soul could not bear the shame of such a disclosure because of his status as an important moral figure in society. As a result, he keeps his identity a secret as Hester is publicly ridiculed for their act of adultery.Despite his choice of guilt over shame, Mr.  Dimmesdale’s private self-inflicted inner turmoil that is exacerbated by the tortures of Roger Chillingworth, ate away at his physical being and mental state, causing much greater suffering than Hester’s public shame of the scarlet letter. Much of the suffering, physical and mental, that Arthur Dimmesdale endures is self-inflicted due to the immense weight of his guilty conscience. Fearing that he would not be able to bear the punishment from the public, he chose to remain anonymous in his sins. In doing so, he underestimated the amount of psycholog ical torture and suffering he would endure by his own hand.By only confessing to himself, he does not fulfill the requirements of repentance, for there is no one to forgive him but himself. He does not allow his conscience to be cleansed, and therefore must live with his sins. His emotional pain leads him to inflict pain with a â€Å"bloody scourge†, which he had often â€Å"plied on his own shoulders†(99). He inflicts great physical pain in addition to his mental torture. In the early Christian church, self-flagellation was imposed as a means of penance and purification for disobedient clergy and laity.In the bible, Proverbs relates that blows â€Å"cleanse away evil† and stripes wash the heart (Prov 20:30). He is trying to redeem and cleanse himself without confession, but this is impossible. Through this self-mutilation, he attempts to relieve his mental pain by inflicting self pain; he find this unsatisfying because he still neglects to partake in the most i mportant aspect of redemption, confession. He also rigorously fasts, as another attempt to cleanse his soul. Hawthorne writes, â€Å"it was his custom, too, as it has been that of many other pious Puritans, to fast, – not, however, like them†¦But rigorously, and until his knees trembled beneath him, as an act of penance†(99). Religiously, fasting is commonly used as a form of purification and focus on spirituality. Once again, he uses bodily pain as an attempt to relieve his mental suffering. By participating in this unsuccessful cleansing, he only subjects himself to greater psychological torture; what he studied and knew to be a cure of guilt and sin only amplifies his own. The situation becomes hopeless when his ways fail him, and this eats away at his religious beliefs, which are the basis of his entire life.He faces an entire identity crisis, and this is something Hester never had to endure. Yes, she withstood her own share of loneliness and suffering, but ne ver to the extreme where she turned to self-mutilation to relieve herself. He attempts to redeem his tarnished soul through various acts of contrition, but all is in vain because it is all done without a confession. His torture is all within himself; he is his own shunning, gossiping townspeople and his own rock-flinging children. There is nowhere for him to hide.He is fully absorbed by his sins and they eat away at him. Hester, who’s publicly tortured by others while in town, though it might be equally as hurtful at that time, is still lesser than Dimmesdale’s suufering. Hester has an escape route. She has the refuge of her home outside of town, where she can get away from the gossip and scorn. She also publicly embraces her accountability in the affair, which allows her to accept the punishment, move on, and make something good out of it. Hester becomes a maternal figure for the community as a result of her experiences.She cares for the poor and brings them food and clothing. By the end of the novel, the shame of the scarlet letter is long gone. She doesn’t owe anything to the townspeople anymore. Some even forget what the scarlet A stands for. Dimmesdale, on the other hand, as a well-respected minister, stands at the center of his community, being the advocate of religious and moral standards of that Puritan society. He must remain in town, outwardly preaching to others about piety and remaining sinless, and internally feeling like an imposter.Dimmesdale realizes his fault in hiding his sin, but his desire to repent is repeatedly overcome by his craving for public approval. He is their moral compass, yet he himself is lost. This drives Dimmesdale to further internalize his guilt and self-punishment and leads to still more deterioration in his physical and spiritual condition. Because of Dimmesdale’s decision to remain anonymous, he unconsciously creates a duality in personality within himself that results in the deterioration of his mental well-being.Dimmesdale, as the revered town minister, must keep up this dichotomy in personality; he is constantly praised for his goodness and asked for moral and spiritual advice, while he is tumultuous inside. Hester is free to be whom she pleases. The townspeople do not believe Dimmesdale’s protestations of sinfulness. Given his background and his fondness for rhetorical speech, Dimmesdale’s congregation generally interprets his sermons metaphorically rather than as expressions of any personal guilt.He plays the literal meaning of his words off against the context in which he speaks them. Dimmesdale's tone of voice, his position as minister, his reputation as a saintly man, and the genre of the sermon allow him to say, â€Å"I am the greatest sinner among you,† but be understood to be humble, pious, and godly. His inner self is desperately trying to confess, but his self concerned with public appearance only allows him to do it in a way that he won t be taken literally. He is essentially at war with himself.By remaining secret, Dimmesdale doomed himself to much greater suffering than if he were to be publicly condemned with Hester because he subjected himself to years of self-torture and an unyielding quest for unobtainable repentance. The role of Roger Chillingsworth in Dimmesdale’s torture amplifies the pain of the sin, causing much greater suffering than Hester who only interacted with the doctor on sparse occasions. As his name suggests, Roger Chillingworth is a man deficient of human warmth. His twisted, stooped, deformed shoulders mirror his distorted soul.Under the guise of a new doctor in town with wholesome intentions towards the young minister and his health, Chillingsworth gains his trust and they move in together forming very peculiar codependent relationship. Chillingworth needs Dimmesdale to nourish his intellect and to be the object of his obsessive desire that he can control and ultimately destroy; Dimme sdale needs Chillingworth to keep his guilt alive, the constant provoking from the doctor for Dimmesdale to reveal his inner sin forces Dimmesdale to be constantly reminded of his transgressions. Chillingworth is like a leech. He sucks Mr.Dimmesdale’s life force out of sick need for reparation for Dimmesdale’s actions against him. Dimmesdale is subconsciously aware of his dependence of Chillingworth, for he cannot and does not break away. Their relationship is described in this quote, â€Å"Nevertheless, time went on; a kind of intimacy, as we have said, grew up between these two cultivated minds, which had as wide a field as the whole sphere of human thought and study to meet upon; they discussed every topic of ethics and religion, of public affairs, and private character; they talked much, on both sides, of matters that seemed personal to themselves..†(P#).Chillingworth lived and thrived off the pain and guilt he constantly inflicted on Dimmesdale, and in a tw isted way Dimmesdale relied on this psychological torture to further his self-inflicted search for forgiveness. The role of Roger Chillingsworth in Dimmesdale’s torture intensifies Dimmesdale’s suffering, causing Dimmesdale to endure vastly more than Hester who was able to avoid the evil doctor. Some argue that it was Hester who suffered the most throughout the novel. They say that because of her crime Hester became secluded from the other people in her society.They exemplify this with the quote, â€Å"Who had been familiarly acquainted with Hester Prynne, were now impress as if they beheld her for the first time was the Scarlet Letter, so fantastically embroidered and illuminated upon her bosom. It had the effect of a spell taking her out of the ordinary relations with humanity and enclosing her in a sphere by herself. â€Å"(61). She became lonely, and the scarlet letter was a burden that Hester had to carry everyday of her life, and the symbol, which secluded her from any other human being.It caused Hester to be ostracized, but Dimmesdale's cowardice in not confessing lead ultimately, to his death. Hester had a horrible punishment: she had to wear a scarlet letter for the rest of her life. But Dimmesdale's internal struggle with his own cowardice and guilt was far worse than a scarlet letter. He suffered the most as he constantly punished himself for his sin. Although Hester suffered the public punishment she dealt with it well and took it in stride, ultimately creating a positive role for herself in the community and transforming the meaning of the scarlet letter.She was able to make amends and in time through good deeds, change the meaning of the scarlet letter from â€Å"adulteress† to â€Å"able†. Dimmesdale on the other hand, has to always bear their sin inside of him never allowing it to become public. He was never given the opportunity to make peace with himself. Instead of taking his penance publicly he does it privatel y. He was forced to continue to bear his private shame, while Hester was able to make peace with herself because she was strong enough to take her punishment, and grow despite of it.Suffering is commonly seen as an unconscious effort to ease painful feelings of guilt. Arthur Dimmesdale's choice of guilt over shame led him to experience a great deal of physical and emotional suffering. Hester admitted to her sin and had a clear conscience, which allowed her to move on with her life and grow as a person. Mr. Dimmesdale’s choice of anonymity in not confessing his wrongdoing to the public, led to his suffering through the guilt of his sin, a pain that was only aggravated by the tortures of Roger Chillingworth, and ultimately resulted in his painful and tragic death.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Cancer Therapies And The Lack Of Effectiveness - 1254 Words

Introduction This review will provide a brief investigation of current cancer therapies and the lack of effectiveness that these treatments provide while treating the disease. The aim of this review is to discuss the urgent need to develop new and effective cancer therapy options that can bridge the gap between the various types of cancer and effective cancer targeting. Chemotherapy and radiation treatments are commonly used as treatment options against cancer; however, one of the negative consequences is the possibility of incomplete tumor removal due to partial tumor penetration. Furthermore, these anticancer treatments lack targeting; chemotherapy and radiation will harm healthy tissue surrounding the cancer site, in addition to targeting malignant tissue. As a result of partial penetration and lack of malignant tissue targeting, the possibility exists that cancer will reoccur within the patient. Autophagy is the cellular process of discarding cellular products via lysosomes, such as proteins or organelles that have lost their function. Autophagy is a form of catabolic metabolism that allows the cells to recycle nutrients under stressful conditions. In a premalignant cell, autotrophy is the mechanism by which that inhibits cell proliferation. Cancer cells utilize autophagy as malignant cells must survive in harsh environments, such as hypoxia and nutrient depletion. In conflict with using radiation as a cancer treat is the fact that radiation promotes autophagy;Show MoreRelatedA Study On The Weaken The Colon s Normal Function917 Words   |  4 Pagesaddition, the majority of fruits and vegetables on the Gerson diet are mainly positive on the alkalinity chart which adds to their effectiveness as cancer thrives in an acidic environment. The liquid form is preferred for the diet as it is a more efficient method to get the most nutrients into the system in comparison to a solid diet. 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